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Table 5 Linear regression models in which baseline subjective well-being (SWBscore2003) or its change (SWBchange) predicts follow-up health behavior (HBSS2012)

From: Changed health behavior improves subjective well-being and vice versa in a follow-up of 9 years

Model SWBscore2003
β
p-value
(standard error)
SWBchange
p-value
HBSS2003
β
p-value
Age
p-value
Gender
p-value
Education
p-value
Diseases
p-value
SWB2003*
Education
p-value
Negative life events
p-value
AIC
Model 2.0: Linear model, no covariates  − 0.038 28,000
 < .001
(0.0027)
Model 2.1: Model 2.0 + Age, gender, education, diseases, SWB2003*education  − 0.040  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.041 0.002 0.003 27,300
 < .001
(0.0048)  
Model 2.2: Model 2.1 + SWBchange  − 0.049  < .001  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.024 0.007 0.009 27,200
 < .001
(0.0049)
Model 2.3: Model 2.1 + HBSS2003  − 0.019 0.49 0.040  < 0.001 0.55 0.020 0.003 23,100
 < .001 p < .001
(0.0031) (0.0088)
Final model 2.4: Model 2.1 + SWBchange + HBSS2003  − 0.025  < .001 0.48 0.093  < 0.001 0.49 0.040 0.005 23,000
 < .001 p < .001
(0.0045) (0.0088)
Model 2.5: Model 2.4 + negative life events  − 0.026  < .001 0.48 0.079  < 0.001 0.50 0.036 0.005 0.52 23,000
 < .001 p < .001
(0.0045) (0.0088)
Model 2.6: SWBchange + Age, gender, education, diseases, SWBchange*education .070  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.72b 27,400
Model 2.7: Model 2.6 + HBSS2003  < .001 0.49 0.022  < 0.001  < 0.001 0.001  < 0.55b 23,000
p < .001
(0.0088)
  1. HBSS, Health behavior sum score i.e. no. of protective health behaviors; the SWBscore, Subjective well-being score (lower scores indicating better SWB); SWBchange, Change in health behavior sum score during follow-up; SWBchange*education, Interaction term in the model 2.6 used because SWB2003 was excluded