Skip to main content

Table 3 Ordinal regression of associations between the factors and the CPQ11–14 scores

From: The factors that influence the oral health-related quality of life in 12-year-old children: baseline study of a longitudinal research

  OS (ISF:8) FL (ISF:8) EWB (ISF:8) SWB (ISF:8) CPQ11–14 ISF: 8 total score OS (RSF:8) FL (RSF:8) EWB (RSF:8) SWB (RSF:8) CPQ11–14 RSF: 8 total score
  OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P
Sociodemographic status
 Gender
  Fa                     
  M 1.89 (1.38, 2.59) 0.000** 1.13 (0.84, 1.53) 0.414 0.72 (0.53, 0.97) 0.030* 0.94 (0.70, 1.28) 0.702 1.14 (0.85, 1.54) 0.383 1.23 (0.91, 1.67) 0.180 0.77 (0.57, 1.04) 0.091 0.67 (0.49, 0.90) 0.008** 1.01 (0.75, 1.37) 0.928 0.96 (0.71, 1.29) 0.774
Father’s education
  Primary school graduate or belowa                     
  Secondary school graduate or below 1.71 (1.04, 2.82) 0.035* 1.14 (0.71, 1.82) 0.595 2.10 (1.30, 3.40) 0.003** 1.26 (0.78, 2.04) 0.335 1.78 (1.11, 2.86) 0.017** 1.78 (1.10, 2.91) 0.020* 0.96 (0.60, 1.53) 0.863 1.70 (1.05, 2.73) 0.029* 1.41 (0.88, 2.27) 0.154 1.60 (1.00, 2.55) 0.0504
  College graduate or above 1.12 (0.56, 2.26) 0.745 1.22 (0.63, 2.36) 0.554 1.96 (1.00, 3.81) 0.048* 1.60 (0.82, 3.12) 0.168 1.74 (0.90, 3.36) 0.100 1.51 (0.76, 2.98) 0.235 0.70 (0.36, 1.36) 0.293 2.62 (1.34, 5.09) 0.005** 1.50 (0.77, 2.92) 0.229 1.72 (0.89, 3.32) 0.105
Mother’s education
  Primary school graduate or belowa                     
  Secondary school graduate or below 0.50 (0.30, 0.83) 0.007** 0.60 (0.37, 0.97) 0.039* 0.43 (0.26, 0.71) 0.001** 0.74 (0.45, 1.21) 0.224 0.49 (0.30, 0.80) 0.004** 0.41 (0.25, 0.68) 0.000** 0.61 (0.38, 1.00) 0.049* 0.52 (0.32, 0.85) 0.010* 0.53 (0.33, 0.87) 0.012* 0.45 (0.27, 0.73) 0.001**
  College graduate or above 0.49 (0.23, 1.05) 0.066 0.50 (0.24, 1.03) 0.061 0.50 (0.24, 1.03) 0.061 0.71 (0.34, 1.48) 0.366 0.47 (0.23, 0.97) 0.040* 0.26 (0.12, 0.56) 0.000** 0.57 (0.28, 1.18) 0.132 0.64 (0.31, 1.33) 0.229 0.65 (0.32, 1.35) 0.249 0.37 (0.18, 0.76) 0.007**
Household income
  Below HK$10,000a                     
  HK$10,001-HK$20,000 1.28 (0.85, 1.93) 0.244 1.15 (0.77, 1.71) 0.490 1.24 (0.83, 1.84) 0.291 0.96 (0.65, 1.43) 0.853 1.09 (0.74, 1.62) 0.651 1.38 (0.92, 2.07) 0.115 1.00 (0.68, 1.48) 0.994 1.08 (0.72, 1.60) 0.715 0.98 (0.66, 1.45) 0.901 1.16 (0.78, 1.71) 0.464
  HK$20,001-HK$30,000 0.84 (0.50, 1.42) 0.517 1.12 (0.68, 1.85) 0.646 1.13 (0.69, 1.85) 0.640 0.89 (0.54, 1.47) 0.643 0.85 (0.52, 1.40) 0.521 1.27 (0.77, 2.11) 0.351 0.91 (0.55, 1.49) 0.696 1.09 (0.66, 1.79) 0.737 0.72 (0.44, 1.19) 0.206 0.94 (0.58, 1.55) 0.821
  HK$30,001-HK$40,000 1.50 (0.82, 2.73) 0.187 1.89 (1.06, 3.38) 0.031* 1.62 (0.90, 2.89) 0.106 0.87 (0.48, 1.57) 0.643 1.28 (0.72, 2.28) 0.400 1.51 (0.84, 2.73) 0.169 1.46 (0.82, 2.61) 0.197 1.12 (0.63, 2.01) 0.700 1.24 (0.70, 2.22) 0.465 1.49 (0.84, 2.65) 0.175
  Over HK$40,001 0.96 (0.50, 1.83) 0.894 1.34 (0.73, 2.48) 0.345 1.04 (0.56, 1.91) 0.903 0.69 (0.37, 1.29) 0.250 0.82 (0.44, 1.50) 0.516 1.06 (0.56, 1.99) 0.862 1.02 (0.55, 1.90) 0.940 0.64 (0.34, 1.19) 0.155 0.77 (0.41, 1.42) 0.395 0.86 (0.47, 1.57) 0.615
Malocclusion
 IOTN (DHC) treatment need
  No needa                     
  Borderline need 0.91 (0.60, 1.40) 0.681 1.30 (0.86, 1.94) 0.210 0.92 (0.61, 1.38) 0.681 1.07 (0.71, 1.61) 0.760 1.10 (0.73, 1.65) 0.645 1.12 (0.74, 1.69) 0.584 0.85 (0.56, 1.28) 0.424 1.12 (0.75, 1.69) 0.577 0.75 (0.50, 1.14) 0.179 0.87 (0.58, 1.30) 0.505
  Definite need 0.86 (0.60, 1.23) 0.415 1.45 (1.03, 2.05) 0.034* 1.29 (0.92, 1.82) 0.145 1.52 (1.08, 2.16) 0.017* 1.33 (0.94, 1.87) 0.107 1.10 (0.77, 1.56) 0.596 1.24 (0.88, 1.75) 0.219 1.24 (0.88, 1.76) 0.220 1.16 (0.82, 1.64) 0.396 1.23 (0.87, 1.73) 0.234
 IOTN (AC) treatment need
  No needa                     
  Borderline need 1.17 (0.76, 1.79) 0.477 1.30 (0.86, 1.97) 0.216 1.32 (0.87, 2.00) 0.189 1.90 (1.25, 2.88) 0.003** 1.54 (1.02, 2.33) 0.041* 1.45 (0.95, 2.20) 0.083 1.14 (0.75, 1.72) 0.549 1.31 (0.86, 2.00) 0.203 1.26 (0.83, 1.91) 0.283 1.48 (0.98, 2.23) 0.065
  Definite need 0.58 (0.28, 1.21) 0.147 1.24 (0.64, 2.40) 0.519 0.90 (0.46, 1.75) 0.758 2.06 (1.07, 3.98) 0.031* 1.23 (0.64, 2.38) 0.532 0.76 (0.38, 1.51) 0.434 0.79 (0.41, 1.56) 0.504 1.03 (0.53, 2.00) 0.928 0.97 (0.50, 1.89) 0.928 0.91 (0.47, 1.77) 0.790
 DAI severity and treatment need
  Normal or minor malocclusion- no treatment need or slight needa                     
  Definite malocclusion- treatment selective Definite malocclusion- treatment selective 1.14 (0.78, 1.67) 0.490 1.35 (0.94, 1.94) 0.109 1.25 (0.87, 1.79) 0.235 1.49 (1.03, 2.15) 0.035* 1.35 (0.94, 1.94) 0.102 1.28 (0.89, 1.86) 0.188 1.08 (0.75, 1.56) 0.671 1.44 (0.99, 2.07) 0.054 1.13 (0.78, 1.63) 0.508 1.37 (0.95, 1.96) 0.091
  Severe malocclusion- treatment highly desirable 0.90 (0.57, 1.43) 0.660 1.34 (0.87, 2.08) 0.184 1.71 (1.10, 2.65) 0.016* 1.51 (0.97, 2.34) 0.068 1.44 (0.94, 2.23) 0.097 1.38 (0.89, 2.14) 0.154 1.29 (0.84, 2.00) 0.250 1.25 (0.81, 1.95) 0.311 1.37 (0.88, 2.12) 0.161 1.59 (1.03, 2.45) 0.037*
  Very severe (handicapping) malocclusion-treatment mandatory 0.90 (0.50, 1.63) 0.736 1.75 (1.00, 3.05) 0.0499* 1.16 (0.67, 2.04) 0.594 3.06 (1.74, 5.36) 0.000** 1.90 (1.09, 3.33) 0.024* 1.19 (0.67, 2.11) 0.547 1.06 (0.60, 1.86) 0.840 1.81 (1.03, 3.19) 0.041* 1.39 (0.80, 2.44) 0.246 1.64 (0.94, 2.87) 0.081
 ICON treatment need
  Noa                     
  Yes 1.15 (0.83, 1.59) 0.408 1.39 (1.02, 1.90) 0.040* 1.13 (0.83, 1.55) 0.432 1.36 (1.00, 1.87) 0.053 1.40 (1.02, 1.91) 0.035* 1.25 (0.91, 1.72) 0.165 1.05 (0.77, 1.44) 0.764 1.06 (0.77, 1.45) 0.715 1.20 (0.88, 1.65) 0.246 1.27 (0.93, 1.74) 0.126
 ICON complexity
  Easya                     
  Mild 1.07 (0.74, 1.53) 0.726 1.31 (0.92, 1.85) 0.132 1.03 (0.73, 1.45) 0.869 1.07 (0.76, 1.52) 0.690 1.13 (0.80, 1.59) 0.503 0.95 (0.67, 1.35) 0.783 1.03 (0.73, 1.46) 0.852 1.44 (1.01, 2.03) 0.041* 0.98 (0.69, 1.38) 0.895 1.14 (0.81, 1.61) 0.444
  Moderate 1.54 (0.90, 2.61) 0.112 1.40 (0.84, 2.35) 0.198 1.28 (0.76, 2.13) 0.354 1.61 (0.96, 2.71) 0.070 1.48 (0.88, 2.46) 0.136 1.79 (1.07, 3.02) 0.027* 1.20 (0.72, 2.01) 0.486 1.52 (0.90, 2.55) 0.115 1.35 (0.80, 2.26) 0.257 2.01 (1.20, 3.37) 0.008**
  Difficult 0.90 (0.44, 1.84) 0.771 1.54 (0.78, 3.04) 0.216 1.32 (0.67, 2.60) 0.427 1.73 (0.87, 3.42) 0.117 1.63 (0.83, 3.20) 0.160 1.01 (0.50, 2.01) 0.986 0.84 (0.42, 1.67) 0.617 1.30 (0.65, 2.58) 0.457 0.86 (0.43, 1.71) 0.665 1.03 (0.52, 2.03) 0.934
  Very difficult 0.74 (0.32, 1.71) 0.480 1.71 (0.79, 3.71) 0.173 0.92 (0.42, 2.00) 0.836 2.28 (1.05, 4.95) 0.036* 1.45 (0.67, 3.15) 0.341 0.77 (0.34, 1.73) 0.531 0.69 (0.31, 1.55) 0.371 1.61 (0.74, 3.52) 0.233 0.95 (0.43, 2.08) 0.897 1.11 (0.51, 2.40) 0.789
PAR
  Almost ideal occlusiona                     
  Acceptable occlusion 0.91 (0.60, 1.37) 0.646 1.01 (0.68, 1.51) 0.958 1.04 (0.70, 1.54) 0.858 1.02 (0.69, 1.53) 0.910 1.07 (0.73, 1.59) 0.719 0.94 (0.63, 1.41) 0.762 0.86 (0.58, 1.28) 0.465 1.18 (0.79, 1.75) 0.422 1.22 (0.82, 1.82) 0.321 1.09 (0.74, 1.61) 0.662
  Malocclusion 0.91 (0.59, 1.39) 0.657 1.57 (1.04, 2.37) 0.031* 1.01 (0.67, 1.52) 0.958 1.32 (0.87, 1.99) 0.192 1.31 (0.87, 1.97) 0.192 1.24 (0.82, 1.88) 0.316 0.86 (0.57, 1.30) 0.481 1.16 (0.77, 1.75) 0.471 1.19 (0.79, 1.80) 0.403 1.16 (0.77, 1.74) 0.480
Periodontal and carries status
 Periodontal status                     
  CPI score = 0a                     
  CPI score > 0 1.44 (0.91, 2.30) 0.122 1.43 (0.92, 2.22) 0.113 1.61 (1.04, 2.49) 0.034* 1.43 (0.92, 2.24) 0.115 1.63 (1.05, 2.53) 0.028* 1.10 (0.71, 1.72) 0.665 1.19 (0.77, 1.84) 0.435 1.40 (0.91, 2.17) 0.127 1.12 (0.73, 1.73) 0.605 1.18 (0.76, 1.81) 0.462
 Caries experience
   < SiC Index valuea                     
   > =SiC Index value 1.06 (0.69, 1.63) 0.799 1.33 (0.88, 2.01) 0.175 1.18 (0.78, 1.79) 0.426 1.31 (0.87, 1.99) 0.197 1.29 (0.85, 1.94) 0.227 1.16 (0.76, 1.76) 0.491 1.08 (0.72, 1.64) 0.702 1.36 (0.89, 2.06) 0.153 1.60 (1.06, 2.42) 0.026* 1.34 (0.89, 2.02) 0.165
  1. Statistical method: Ordinal regression (link function: logit), each orthodontic index adopted one separate ordinal regression; dependent variable: CPQ scores classified into four groups with cut-off points as quartile (1: scores < =first quartile; 2: first quartile < scores < =second quartile; 3: second quartile < scores < = third quartile; 4: scores > third quartile); a: reference group; OR: adjusted odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; *: P < 0.05. **: P < 0.01
  2. N: sample size; adjusted OR: malocclusions adjusted for gender, father’s education level (primary school graduate or below; secondary school, post-secondary or above), mother’s education level (levels set as father’s education), household income (Below HK$10000, HK$10001-HK$20000, HK$20001-HK$30000, HK$30001-HK$40000, HK$40001 or above), caries experience (DMFT < SiC Index value, DMFT > =SiC Index value), and periodontal status (CPI score = 0, CPI score > 0); gender, socioeconomic status, periodontal and caries status adjusted for the previous variables and malocclusion measured by DAI
  3. OS Oral symptoms domain, FL Functional limitations domain, EWB Emotional well-being domain, SWB Social well-being domain, SiC Index Significant Caries Index
  4. Results of statistical analysis