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Table 3 Risk factors for the psychosocial disorder derived from univariate analysis

From: Assessment of psychosocial functioning and its risk factors in children with pectus excavatum

Variable n Total problems χ2 P Odds ratio 95%Confidence Interval
   No. (%)     
Age        
   6-8 years 109 16 14.7     
   9-11 years 121 21 17.4 0.304 0.581 1.221 0.601-2.480
   12-16 years 107 29 27.1 5.053 0.025* 2.161 1.094-4.268
Gender        
   Male 266 49 18.4 1.085 0.298 1.394 0.745-2.610
   Female 71 17 23.9     
Severity        
   I Degree 50 7 14.0     
   II Degree 149 24 16.1 0.126 0.722 1.179 0.475-2.931
   III Degree 68 14 20.6 0.855 0.355 1.539 0.591-4.294
   IV Degree 70 21 30.0 4.174 0.041* 2.633 1.020-6.796
Perceived age†        
   ≤ 6 271 50 18.5 1.131 0.288 0.707 0.372-1.342
   ≥ 7 66 16 24.2     
Perceived approach        
   By themselves 186 39 21.0 0.504 0.478 1.218 0.706-2.103
   By others 151 27 17.9     
Being teased        
   Yes 77 22 28.6 5.118 0.024* 1.964 1.087-3.547
   No 260 44 16.9     
Had surgical repair        
   Yes 281 57 20.3     
   No 56 9 16.1 0.526 0.468 0.573 0.348-1.625
Father's education        
   Higher 115 19 16.5     
   Intermediate 134 26 19.4 0.347 0.556 1.216 0.634-2.335
   Lower 86 21 24.4 1.925 0.165 1.632 0.814-3.274
Mother's education        
   Higher 92 14 15.2     
   Intermediate 143 25 17.5 0.241 0.624 1.196 0.586-2.440
   Lower 100 27 27.0 3.961 0.047* 2.061 1.003-4.234
Household income
per year (RMB)
       
   >30000 80 14 17.5     
   20000-30000 185 34 18.4 0.029 0.865 1.061 0.534-2.109
   <20000 72 18 25.0 1.283 0.257 1.571 0.716-3.447
  1. Note: Some parents did not answer all questions, resulting in different totals.
  2. *The differences are statistical significant if P < 0.05.
  3. † The age which an awareness of the depression arose in the child.