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Table 3 Factors associated with HRQoL changes on the physical domain (SF 12-PCS) N = 126

From: Health-related quality of life in outpatients with substance use disorder: evolution over time and associated factors

Characteristics Mean ± SD Bivariable analysis Multivariable analysis (R2 = 0.2)
T0 T1 T2 p value p value Effect size η2
Age     0.002 0.070 0.011
 ≤ 38.5 48.27 ± 6.91 50.11 ± 6.53 49.73 ± 6.85    
 > 38.5 43.03 ± 9.27 46.68 ± 8.74 46.98 ± 9.60    
Gender     0.18   
 Male 45.92 ± 8.33 48.76 ± 7.44 48.71 ± 8.30    
 Female 43.45 ± 9.35 46.75 ± 9.41 47.03 ± 8.87    
Marital status     0.43   
 Never married 45.27 ± 7.20 48.84 ± 7.78 47.84 ± 8.06    
 Married/live with a partner 46.38 ± 8.58 49.52 ± 6.72 48.97 ± 8.00    
 Separated/divorced/widowed 44.31 ± 11.10 45.53 ± 9.17 48.32 ± 9.78    
Educational level     0.77   
 Primary school 42.75 ± 6.53 51.34 ± 6.35 48.65 ± 11.44    
 Secondary school 46.28 ± 8.48 48.16 ± 7.96 48.51 ± 8.08    
 High school/university 43.71 ± 9.57 47.88 ± 8.27 47.93 ± 8.40    
Occupational status     0.008 0.012 0.022
 Unemployed 44.65 ± 8.85 46.76 ± 8.31 46.72 ± 8.74    
 Employed 46.66 ± 8.12 50.74 ± 6.58 50.71 ± 7.21    
Type of dependence       
 Alcohol dependence 44.80 ± 10.29 47.75 ± 8.48 47.78 ± 9.26 0.46   
 Opioid dependence 45.78 ± 7.47 48.70 ± 7.55 48.71 ± 7.93    
Duration of addiction (years)     0.07 1.00 0.00
 ≤ 13 46.78 ± 8.10 48.98 ± 7.19 49.48 ± 7.36    
 > 13 43.96 ± 8.95 47.63 ± 8.62 46.95 ± 9.23    
Comorbid axis I diagnosis     0.001 0.014 0.021
 Yes 42.67 ± 9.18 45.38 ± 9.28 46.40 ± 9.16    
 No 47.02 ± 7.80 50.08 ± 6.40 49.52 ± 7.77    
Origin of the care request     0.15   
 Patient 44.16 ± 8.39 48.04 ± 8.22 48.07 ± 8.66    
 Justice 51.83 ± 7.06 48.78 ± 5.80 49.90 ± 6.73    
 Health practitioner 47.47 ± 8.23 49.95 ± 7.51 48.88 ± 8.46    
Medication initiated during 6-month follow-up    0.43   
 Yes 45.27 ± 8.44 47.82 ± 7.47 47.98 ± 8.30    
 No 45.68 ± 8.88 49.33 ± 8.33 49.06 ± 8.63    
Change in substance use behavior at 6 months    0.30   
 Yes 45.33 ± 8.79 48.00 ± 7.99 48.10 ± 8.50    
 No 45.95 ± 7.79 50.57 ± 6.86 49.94 ± 8.07    
HADS anxiety     0.01 0.34 0.003
 < 8 48.85 ± 8.43 50.34 ± 6.77 50.53 ± 7.00    
 ≥ 8 44.20 ± 8.20 47.59 ± 8.30 47.78 ± 8.69    
HADS depression     0.001 0.004 0.029
 < 8 48.21 ± 8.26 50.85 ± 6.15 50.25 ± 8.22    
 ≥ 8 43.38 ± 8.17 46.62 ± 8.53 47.23 ± 8.19    
  1. SD standard deviation, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  2. *Significant interaction with time for HADS depression (p < 0.05)