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Table 4 EQ-5L-5D domains and association with socio-demography, duration & treatment, and financial monthly income

From: Quality of life of women with breast cancer in a tertiary referral university hospital

Characteristic Mobility Self-care Usual activity Pain/discomfort Anxiety / depression
Mean rank z/ χ2 (p-value) Mean rank z/ χ2 (p-value) Mean rank z/ χ2 (p-value) Mean rank z/ χ2 (p-value) Mean rank z/ χ2 (p-value)
Sociodemographic           
 Age (years old)1           
  30–39 78.57 3.546 (0.471) 93.00 1.282 (0.864) 102.71 3.778 (0.437) 110.07 2.584 (0.630) 114.71 3.777 (0.437)
  40–49 80.69   86.09   82.88   88.74   86.82  
  50–59 84.16   85.21   82.84   85.17   85.65  
  60–69 92.34   88.60   92.51   87.41   85.10  
  > 70 97.18   87.50   84.86   77.54   87.21  
 Marital status1           
  Single 89.11 1.643 (0.650) 87.57 6.601 (0.086) 93.36 1.663 (0.645) 89.11 5.124 (0.163) 77.00 1.729 (0.631)
  Married 87.27   85.27   85.39   88.21   88.40  
  Divorced 72.00   100.78   88.61   99.67   91.17  
  Widowed 93.14   96.91   97.95   58.73   78.59  
 Ethnicity1           
  Malay 86.59 0.052 (0.974) 87.62 3.237 (0.198) 85.48 0.618 (0.734) 85.97 0.221 (0.895) 89.12 2.571 (0.277)
  Chinese 88.16   83.07   90.36   88.57   85.90  
  Indian 86.71   95.42   89.50   91.29   70.42  
  Others 0   0   0   0   0  
 Formal education1           
  None 109.25 4.301 (0.231) 102.88 4.439 (0.218) 100.13 4.570 (0.206) 84.44 0.468 (0.926) 94.63 0.569 (0.904)
  Primary 93.41   86.50   97.34   85.88   83.81  
  Secondary 85.16   86.65   83.53   89.57   87.86  
  Tertiary 82.69   85.50   83.98   84.47   86.55  
 Employment status1           
  Never employed 84.76 4.083 (0.538) 81.00 8.187 (0.146) 88.85 1.676 (0.892) 84.27 7.017 (0.219) 84.31 4.182 (0.524)
  Unemployed 92.11   89.19   92.63   87.97   95.02  
  Self employed 89.88   103.25   93.00   133.00   63.50  
  Part time 63.50   81.00   92.17   45.00   88.19  
  Full time 80.69   84.50   83.18   85.29   85.99  
  Pensioner 92.74   91.59   84.87   88.92    
 Presence of concurrent illness2           
  Yes 91.01 − 1.560 (0.119) 87.99 − 0.683 (0.495) 90.16 − 1.300 (0.194) 87.82 − 0.277 (0.780) 90.08 − 1.207 (0.227)
  No 81.64   85.68   82.78   85.90   82.88  
Duration and treatment           
 Duration of BC1           
  < 1 year 85.35 0.441 (0.979) 85.33 7.576 (0.108) 88.68 6.207 (0.184) 94.88 2.949 (0.566) 96.35 6.482 (0.166)
  ≥ 1- 5 years 87.70   89.44   92.28   81.61   83.62  
  ≥ 5- 10 years 89.35   81.00   73.71   88.52   79.46  
  ≥ 10–15 years 87.41   81.00   77.38   94.78   99.81  
  ≥ 15 years 80.50   100.22   86.94   82.89   75.28  
 Treatment received           
 Hormonal therapy2           
  Yes 85.90 − 0.717 (0.474) 84.62 2.165 (0.030)* 85.23 − 0.963 (0.336) 87.64 − 0.282 (0.778) 85.03 − 1.018 (0.309)
  No 90.25   92.54   91.13   85.52   91.59  
 Chemotherapy2           
   Yes 85.18 − 1.198 (0.231) 87.30 − 0.348 (0.728) 86.34 − 0.456 (0.648) 87.83 − 0.472 (0.637) 88.16 − 0.767 (0.443)
   No 93.94   85.86   89.50   83.83   82.58  
 Radiotherapy2           
  Yes 85.33 − 0.855 (0.393) 85.31 − 1.534 (0.125) 84.13 − 1.557 (0.119) 86.99 − 0.004 (0.997) 86.05 − 0.491 (0.623)
  No 90.88   90.92   93.67   87.02   89.21  
 Surgery2           
  Yes 86.32 − 0.925 (0.355) 86.29 − 1.699 (0.089) 86.60 − 0.573 (0.567) 87.02 − 0.025 (0.980) 86.77 − 0.310 (0.756)
  No 98.10   98.50   93.50   86.65   90.70  
 Traditional medicine2           
  Yes 95.34 − 1.564 (0.118) 87.39 − 0.130 (0.897) 93.30 − 1.251 (0.211) 106.20 − 3.108 (0.002)* 93.05 − 1.142 (0.254)
  No 84.41   86.88   85.04   81.04   85.12  
Financial factor           
 Individual monthly income1 (RM)           
  ≤ 500 89.64 1.559 (0.669) 87.83 1.888 (0.596) 89.98 1.453 (0.693) 81.06 4.493 (0.213) 84.45 0.986 (0.805)
  > 500–1000 82.46   84.83   85.17   103.35   92.13  
  > 1000–5000 88.32   88.49   87.05   85.60   88.59  
  > 5000 78.18   81.00   78.15   91.85   83.03  
 Household income (RM)1           
  ≤ 1000 89.93 1.357 (0.852) 94.91 7.515 (0.111) 100.13 9.967 (0.041)* 96.61 12.845 (0.012)* 91.59 3.895 (0.420)
  > 1000–3000 84.37   85.85   89.96   83.81   83.16  
  > 3000–5000 82.02   81.00   72.03   66.43   82.87  
  > 5000–10,000 89.91   88.26   83.20   89.83   86.16  
  > 10,000 92.33   81.00   91.46   115.54   105.00  
 Savings affected2           
  Yes 89.30 − 0.438 (0.662) 85.24 − 0.595 (0.552) 86.17 − 0.168 (0.867) 90.64 − 0.599 (0.549) 90.29 − 0.630 (0.529)
  No 86.26   87.56   87.27   85.83   85.95  
 Problem buying basic needs2           
  Yes 87.90 − 0.109 (0.913) 99.37 − 2.591 (0.010)* 95.95 − 1.119 (0.263) 96.16 − 0.935 (0.350) 82.37 − 0.551 (0.582)
  No 86.89   85.47   85.90   85.87   87.57  
  1. *Significant p-value at p < 0.05 (2 tailed)
  2. 1 Variables were tested by Kruskal Wallis test and presented as Chi-square
  3. 2 Variables were tested by Mann Whitney U test and presented as z value