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Table 5 Adjusted associations between gender, demographic variables, psychosocial variables, pain and HRQOL examined by hierarchical regression analysesab, N = 561

From: Stress, pain, and work affiliation are strongly associated with health-related quality of life in parents of 14–15-year-old adolescents

  SF-36 PCS SF-36 MCS
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6
Gender (Ref = father) − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 0.00 0.00 − 0.07 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.05 − 0.04
Age − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.00
County (ref = Oslo/Viken) − .05 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.07 − 0.07 − 0.08* 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.01
Living conditions (ref = Married/cohabitat)
Single/divorced, widow/widower 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.07 − 0.08 − 0.11* − 0.08 − 0.07 − 0.04 − 0.03
Education (ref = university 4 years or more)
Less than 13 years of education − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.08 0.08 0.11* 0.11* 0.10* 0.08 − 0.01
University less than 4 years − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.08* 0.08* 0.07* 0.03
Employment status (ref = Not paid work)
Part time 0.50* 0.46* 0.46* 0.41* 0.41* 0.40* 0.14* 0.10 0.13* 0.06 0.08 0.04
Full time 0.60* 0.58* 0.58* 0.52* 0.52* 0.52* 0.26* 0.19* 0.07 0.19 0.14* 0.10
Absence from work (Ref = 0 days)c
1–4 days − 0.12* − 0.12* − 0.12* − 0.11* − 0.11* − 0.10* − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.01 0.00
5–7 days − 0.10 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.04 − 0.05 − 0.06 − 0.03
8–10 days − 0.60 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.08* − 0.08* − 0.07 − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.04
More than 10 days − 0.28* − 0.27* − 0.28* − 0.25* − 0.25* − 0.24* − 0.25* − 0.24* − 0.20* − 0.20* − 0.20* − 0.13*
Household income (NOKkr)(ref < 250.000)
250.000–450.000 − 0.11 − 0.10 − 0.10 − 0.10 − 0.10 − 0.10 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.09
451.000–750.000 0.00 0.01 0.02 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 0.07 0.12 0.07 0.08 0.07 0.10
751.000–1.000.000 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.21 0.23 0.17 0.18 0.16 0.18
More than 1.000.000 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.28 0.31 0.18 0.19 0.15 0.20
Self-efficacyd   0.05 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.02   0.26* 0.10* 0.10* 0.07 0.07
Self-esteeme    − 0.02 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.10*    0.43* 0.44* 0.32* 0.11*
Pain (Ref = none)             
Less than 3 months     − 0.14* − 0.14* − 0.14*     0.04 0.05 0.08*
More than 3 months     − 0.39* − 0.39* − 0.37*     − 0.04 − 0.02 0.07*
Lonelinessf      − 0.01 0.02      − 0.28* − 0.08*
Stressg       − 0.10*       − 0.58*
R2 adjc 30.0% 31% 30.9% 42.3% 42.2% 42.6% 16.2% 22.1% 36.8% 37.1% 42.4% 58.7%
  1. *P ≤ 0.05
  2. aHierarchical regression analyses were performed separately for RAND36 PCS and MCS as dependent variables
  3. bThe independent variables were entered into the regression in six steps, leading to six linear regression models (M1–M6)
  4. cThe strength of the associations is described in terms of standardized regression coefficients and adjusted R2
  5. dSelf-efficacy: range 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-efficacy
  6. eSelf-esteem: range 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-esteem
  7. fLoneliness: range 8–32, where higher values indicate higher levels of loneliness
  8. gStress: range 0–1, where higher values indicate higher levels of stress