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Table 4 Unadjusted associations between gender, demographic variables, psychosocial variables, pain and HRQOL examined by linear regression analysesabc, N = 561

From: Stress, pain, and work affiliation are strongly associated with health-related quality of life in parents of 14–15-year-old adolescents

  SF36-PCS SF-36-MCS
B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6
Gender (Ref = father) − 0.05       − 0.08      
Age − 0.07       0.03      
County (ref = Oslo/Viken) − 0.70       0.02      
Living conditions
Married/cohabitate Ref       Ref      
Single/divorced, widow/widower 0.05       − 0.12*      
Education
Less than 13 years of education − 0.09       0.06      
University less than 4 years − 0.05       0.04      
University 4 years or more Ref       Ref      
Employment status (ref = Not paid work)
Full time 0.68*       0.34*      
Part time 0.54*       0.20*      
Absence from work (ref = 0 days)
1–4 days − 0.09*       − 0.02      
5–7 days − 0.00       − 0.04      
8–10 days − 0.005       − 0.07      
Household income (NOK)
Less than 250.000 Ref       ref      
250.000–450.000 0.12       0.03      
451.000–750.000 − 0.02       0.05      
751.000–1.000.000 0.02       0.17      
More than 1.000.000 0.10       0.24      
Self-efficacyd   0.21*       0.31*     
Self-esteeme    0.54*          
       0.54*       
Pain (ref = none)
Less than 3 months     − 0.19*       − 0.08   
More than 3 months     − 0.50*       − 0.21*   
Lonelinessf      − 0.015       − 0.49*  
Stressg       0.26*        − 0.73*
R2 adjc 23.9% 4.2% 2.6% 20.6% 2.0 6.4% 10.6% 9.4% 28.8% 3.3% 23.6% 53.8%
  1. *P ≤ 0.05
  2. aLinear regression analyses were performed separately for the RAND36 PCS and MCS as the dependent variables
  3. bThe independent variables were grouped into six blocks: B1–B6
  4. cThe strength of the associations is described in terms of standardized regression coefficients and adjusted R2
  5. dSelf-efficacy: range 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-efficacy
  6. eSelf-esteem: range 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-esteem
  7. fLoneliness: range 8–32, where higher values indicate higher levels of loneliness
  8. gStress: range 0–1, where higher values indicate higher levels of stress