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Table 3 Descriptive characteristics of HRQOL, self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness and stress (N = 561), and differences between women and men

From: Stress, pain, and work affiliation are strongly associated with health-related quality of life in parents of 14–15-year-old adolescents

  All
N = 561
Mothers
N = 426
Fathers
N = 125
P value
HRQOL
RAND-36 PCSa 52 (10) 51 (9) 53 (7) 0.002
RAND-36 MCSa 52 (8) 51 (8) 54 (7) < 0.001
RAND-36 eight domains
Bodily pain 78 (23) 77 (24) 85 (20) < 0.001
General health 77 (19) 76 (20) 80 (15) 0.012
Physical function 93 (13) 93 (14) 96 (10) 0.016
Physical role function 84 (33) 82 (35) 90 (26) 0.003
Mental health 81 (13) 80 (13) 84 (11) < 0.001
Vitality 64 (20) 62 (21) 70 (18) < 0.001
Social function 87 (20) 85 (21) 93 (15) < 0.001
Emotional role function 89 (28) 88 (29) 93 (23) 0.035
Psychological factors
General self-efficacyb 3.3 (0.4) 3.3 (0.4) 3.4 (0.4) 0.007
Lonelinessc 12.7 (4.2) 12.8 (4.4) 12.5 (4.1) 0.573
Stressd 0.28 (0.14) 0.29 (0.16) 0.24 (0.14) 0.006
Self-esteeme 33.4 (0.55) 3.44 (0.55) 3.31(0.55) 0.026
  1. Independent t tests were used to compare mothers and fathers
  2. aThe score for the SF-36 ranges from 0 to 100, where 100 indicates a high HRQOL. PCS, physical component summary; MCS, mental component summary
  3. bGeneral self-efficacy: range 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-efficacy
  4. cLoneliness: range 8–32, where higher values indicate higher levels of loneliness
  5. dStress: range 0–1, where higher values indicate higher levels of stress
  6. eSelf-esteem: range 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-esteem