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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study subjects in 2018 (N = 151)

From: A pilot study on the validity and psychometric properties of the electronic EQ-5D-5L in routine clinical practice

  Overall (N = 151) GOPC (N = 101) SOPC (N = 50) P value†
Socio-Demographics (%, n)     
Male 53.0 (80) 66.3 (67) 26.0 (13) 0.001
Female 47.0 (71) 33.7 (34) 74.0 (37)  
Age (mean ± SD), year 64.77 ± 9.23 (151) 66.13 ± 8.42 (101) 61.52 ± 9.73 (50) 0.001
Education     0.154
Primary or less 45.0 (68) 52.5 (53) 30.0 (15)  
Secondary 47.0 (71) 40.6 (41) 60.0 (30)  
Tertiary 7.9 (12) 6.9 (7) 10.0 (5)  
Diagnosis (%, n)     < 0.001
Back 35.1 (53) 16.8 (17) 72.0 (36)  
Knee 58.3 (88) 78.2 (79) 18.0 (9)  
Both 6.6 (10) 5.0 (5) 10.0 (5)  
Duration of Diagnosis     0.001
< 1 year 15.2 (23) 17.8 (18) 10.0 (5)  
1–< 5 years 45.0 (68) 32.7 (33) 70.0 (35)  
5–10 years 17.9 (27) 17.8 (18) 18.0 (9)  
> 10 years 21.9 (33) 31.7 (32) 2.0 (1)  
Number of other Chronic Diseases     0.399
0 14.6 (22) 10.9 (11) 22.0 (11)  
1–3 72.8 (110) 76.2 (77) 66.0 (33)  
 > = 4 12.6 (19) 12.9 (13) 12.0 (6)  
WOMAC (mean ± SD, n)     
WOMAC Total score 27.69 ± 17.09 (149) 23.98 ± 16.07 (100) 35.92 ± 17.22 (50) 0.001
WOMAC Pain Subscale score 6.87 ± 4.06 (151) 6.11 ± 3.99 (101) 8.40 ± 3.81 (50) 0.001
WOMAC Stiffness Subscale score 2.48 ± 2.00 (150) 1.95 ± 1.84 (100) 3.54 ± 1.90 (50) 0.001
WOMAC Function Subscale score 18.45 ± 12.36 (150) 15.68 ± 11.18 (100) 23.98 ± 12.84 (50) 0.001
Pain Rating Scale scores (out of 10) 4.37 ± 2.35 (151) 3.94 ± 2.45 (101) 5.24 ± 1.90 (50) 0.001
EQ-5D-5L Dimensions Level % (n)     P value§
Mobility (% with Limitation)# 28.4 24.7 36.0 0.074
    No problems 25.2 (38) 26.7 (27) 22.0 (11)  
    Slight problems 46.4 (70) 48.5 (49) 42.0 (21)  
    Moderate problems 20.5 (31) 17.8 (18) 26.0 (13)  
    Severe problems 7.9 (12) 6.9 (7) 10.0 (5)  
    Extreme problems/unable to 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Self-care (% with Limitation)# 7.3 6.9 8.0 0.403
    No problems 72.8 (110) 77.2 (78) 64.0 (32)  
    Slight problems 19.9 (30) 15.8 (16) 28.0 (14)  
    Moderate problems 6.6 (10) 6.9 (7) 6.0 (3)  
    Severe problems 0.7 (1) 0 (0) 2.0 (1)  
    Extreme problems/unable to 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Usual activities (% with Limitation)# 21.9 10.9 44.0 < 0.001
    No problems 41.7 (63) 50.5 (51) 24.0 (12)  
    Slight problems 36.4 (55) 38.6 (39) 32.0 (16)  
    Moderate problems 17.2 (26) 6.9 (7) 38.0 (19)  
    Severe problems 4.0 (6) 4.0 (4) 4.0 (2)  
    Extreme problems/unable to 0.7 (1) 0 (0) 2.0 (1)  
Pain (% with Limitation)# 47.7 40.6 62.0 0.007
    No problems 9.3 (14) 13.9 (14) 0 (0)  
    Slight problems 43.0 (65) 45.5 (46) 38.0 (19)  
    Moderate problems 35.1 (53) 30.7 (31) 44.0 (22)  
    Severe problems 11.3 (17) 8.9 (9) 16.0 (8)  
    Extreme problems/unable to 1.3 (2) 1.0 (1) 2.0 (1)  
Anxiety/depression (% with Limitation)# 15.9 9.9 28.0 0.002
    No problems 51.0 (77) 60.4 (61) 32.0 (16)  
    Slight problems 33.1 (50) 29.7 (30) 40.0 (20)  
    Moderate problems 11.3 (17) 7.9 (8) 18.0 (9)  
    Severe problems 3.3 (5) 2.0 (2) 6.0 (3)  
    Extreme problems/unable to 1.3 (2) 0 (0) 4.0 (2)  
EQ-5D-5L Utility score (mean ± S.D.) 0.62 ± 0.26 0.67 ± 0.23 0.52 ± 0.27 0.001
EQ-VAS score (mean ± S.D.) 67.89 ± 17.09 71.3 ± 15.78 61.06 ± 17.75  < 0.001
  1. GOPC = general outpatient clinic; SOPC = specialist outpatient clinic; WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index
  2. #EQ-5D-5L dimension responses of moderate, severe and very severe were grouped into the “with Limitation” category
  3. Tested by independent t-test; § tested by Chi-square test