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Table 1 Descriptive, health and oral hygiene characteristics of the sample at baseline (T0) and their relationship to GOHAI (n = 331)

From: Oral health-related quality of life outcomes in a randomized clinical trial to assess a community-based oral hygiene intervention among adults living in low-income senior housing

  Percent of total sample Mean (SD) GOHAI Summary Score
Sample Mean = 39.7 (sd = 7.8)
p value
Kruskal–Wallis H test
Background characteristics
Gender    0.84
 Male 42.0 39.7 (7.9)  
 Female 58.0 39.6 (7.7)  
Age    0.20
 < 62 31.1 37.9 (8.5)  
 >  = 62 68.9 40.4 (7.3)  
Race/ethnicity    0.51
 Hispanic 58.3 38.9 (8.3)  
 Black Not Hispanic 23.0 40.1 (7.8)  
 White Not Hispanic and others 18.7 39.1 (7.0)  
Education    0.61
 Less than high school 47.7 39.9 (8.2)  
 Completed high school or more 52.3 39.5 (7.4)  
Marital status    0.12
 Single 30.2 38.9 (8.3)  
 Married/living as married 16.1 38.4 (8.8)  
 Separated/divorced 35.0 40.1 (6.5)  
 Widowed 18.7 41.0 (8.1)  
Income    0.99
 < $900 51.6 39.4 (8.1)  
 >  = $900 48.4 39.9 (7.6)  
Health status variables
Health insurance    0.49
 Medicaid & Medicare + Medicaid 51.0 39.1 (8.0)  
 Medicare only 13.0 39.5 (7.6)  
 Other 36.0 42.2 (6.1)  
Number of diagnoses (Mean = 3.8 (sd = 1.4); median = 4)    0.27
 0–4 67.4 40.5 (7.4)  
 4 +  32.6 37.9 (8.2)  
Number of diagnoses that interfere with daily activities    0.01
 0 42.0 42.4 (6.3)  
 1 +  58.0 37.7 (8.1)  
CES-DSF    0.02
 0–4 57.4 41.2 (6.9)  
 4 +  42.6 37.5 (8.3)  
Rating of oral health    0.01
 Poor and fair 63.1 37.7 (8.2)  
 Good and excellent 36.9 42.9 (5.6)  
Oral hygiene behaviors
Brushing teeth frequency    0.88
 Less than twice a day 25.4 38.9 (7.5)  
 Twice a day or more 74.6 39.9 (7.9)  
Flossing frequency    0.54
 Less than once a day 55.6 39.9 (7.6)  
 Once a day or more 44.4 39.4 (8.0)