Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle determinants of the studied sample

From: Health-related quality of life in a general population sample in Kazakhstan and its sociodemographic and occupational determinants

Variable Overall Men Women
N 1500 (100) 748 (50) 752 (50)
Age, years* 49 (28) 45 (29) 54 (23)
Education, N (%)*
 Secondary school 15 (1) 8 (1) 7 (1)
 High school 282 (19) 179 (24) 103 (14)
 College 416 (28) 173 (23) 243 (32)
 University 764 (51) 373 (50) 391 (52)
 Academic degree 23 (1) 15 (2) 8 (1)
Monthly income, N (%)*
 10,000 tenge or less 535 (36) 242 (32) 293 (39)
 100,000–500,000 tenge 925 (62) 485 (65) 440 (59)
 More than 500,000 tenge 36 (2) 20 (3) 16 (2)
Cigarette smoking, N (%)*
 Never 620 (41) 152 (20) 469 (62)
 Former 418 (28) 269 (36) 149 (20)
 Current 462 (31) 327 (44) 134 (18)
Current waterpipe smoking, N (%)* 143 (10) 109 (15) 34 (5)
Current electronic cigarette use, N (%)* 45 (3) 34 (5) 11 (1)
Exposure to secondhand smoke, N (%)* 610 (41) 331 (44) 279 (37)
Regular physical activity, N (%) 462 (31) 248 (33) 214 (28)
Alcohol use, N (%)*
 Never 746 (50) 310 (41) 436 (58)
 Small amount sometimes 480 (32) 233 (31) 247 (33)
 Moderate amount sometimes 185 (12) 132 (18) 53 (7)
 At least once a week 89 (6) 73 (10) 16 (2)
  1. SHS secondhand smoke; pairwise comparisons are from χ2 test or Mann–Whitney U-test. Tests of education, household income, cigarette smoking and alcohol use are from 2 * 5 2 * 3 and 2 * 4 tests; * – p < 0.05