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Table 2 Total, direct and indirect effects of independent variables on dependent variables

From: Determinants of health-related quality of life in patients with celiac disease: a structural equation modeling

Variables SF-36 domains Effect Age SPC Sex Occupation Education level Marital status Disease duration Comorbidity Adherence to diet GSRS
SPC SPC SPC SPC SPC SPC SPC SPC SPC
Total PCS Total 0.47 − 26.94 14.42* 50.62* − 28.76 − 1.73 − 13.37 52.43* − 2.27*
Direct − 0.37 − 16.78 1.85 41.86* − 13.98 − 2.75 − 17.58 31.85* − 2.27*
Indirect 0.85 − 10.15 12.57 8.76 − 14.78 1.02 4.21 20.57*  
MCS Total 1.02 − 26.67 − 0.17 42.41* − 27.15 0.80 − 18.65 54.95* − 2.18*
Direct 0.13 − 16.10 − 13.35 33.23 − 11.65 − 0.27 − 22.17 35.15* − 2.18*
Indirect 0.89 − 10.57 13.17 9.18 − 15.49 1.07 3.51 19.79*  
Males PCS Total 0.67   − 24.34 87.45 − 3.60 − 3.82 − 25.29 55.49 − 2.20
Direct − 0.19   − 33.76 46.87 4.02 − 5.67 − 22.96 35.18 − 2.20
Indirect 0.87   9.41 40.58 − 7.62 1.84 − 2.33 20.30  
MCS Total 1.27   − 3.08 103.104 − 35.78 − 1.47 − 31.34 51.69 − 2.39
Direct 0.46   − 11.86 12.03 − 28.68 − 3.22 − 32.80 29.61 − 2.39
Indirect 0.81   8.77 37.80 − 7.10 1.75 1.25 22.07  
Females PCS Total − 0.06   43.95 18.72 − 39.38 − 0.44 2.91 55.49 − 2.45
Direct − 0.87   18.25 33.84 − 23.50 0.29 − 1.64 25.31 − 2.45
Indirect 0.80   25.70 − 15.11 − 15.88 − 0.73 4.56 23.25  
MCS Total 0.66   30.04 − 3.27 − 16.72 0.93 − 1.78 49.16 − 2.14
Direct − 0.15   4.01 12.03 − 0.64 1.56 − 6.21 28.78 − 2.14
Indirect 0.81   26.02 − 15.30 − 16.10 − 0.62 4.43 20.38  
  1. GSRS, Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale; PCS, physical component summary; MCS, mental component summary; CDAT, celiac disease adherence test; SPC, standardized path coefficient
  2. *Indicates significant correlation