Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive statistics and correlations of HRQOL indicators across two measurement points

From: Predictors of long-term HRQOL following cardiac surgery: a 5-year follow-up study

  Pre-surgery (T1) 5-year follow-up (T2) t (df) r
M (SD) γ1/γ2 M (SD) γ1/γ2
General health 48.08 (16.36) 0.22/0.34 50.70 (19.79) 0.08/− 0.15 − 1.73 (199) 0.31***
Physical functioning 62.10 (24.31) − 0.74/− 0.09 76.91 (22.39) − 1.25/1.16 − 8.23 (204)*** 0.39***
Bodily pain 58.35 (24.12) 0.06/− 0.66 60.84 (29.25) − 0.02/− 0.95 − 1.07 (206) 0.22**
Mental health 64.84 (17.76) 0.03/− 0.97 73.08 (17.17) − 0.35/− 0.44 − 5.77 (202)*** 0.32***
Role limitations (physical) 66.29 (16.80) 0.62/− 0.88 69.34 (28.70) − 0.56/− 0.73 − 1.28 (197) − 0.01
Role limitations (emotional) 73.27 (21.06) 0.13/− 1.55 76.23 (25.86) − 0.70/− 0.66 − 1.42 (206) 0.20**
Vitality 57.58 (19.39) − 0.01/− 0.48 63.64 (19.48) − 0.11/− 0.83 − 3.74 (197)*** 0.31***
Social functioning 64.43 (26.47) − 0.33/− 0.77 81.83 (24.86) − 1.29/0.88 − 7.69 (203)*** 0.21**
  1. M = mean, SD = standard deviation, γ1 = skewness, γ2 = kurtosis
  2. ** <  0.01, ***  <  0.001