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Table 2 Self-reported fear of COVID-19, general health, psychological distress and overall quality of life in bachelor nursing students versus reference data

From: Quality of life and fear of COVID-19 in 2600 baccalaureate nursing students at five universities: a cross-sectional study

Variables Sample, mean ± SD Population, meanc Cohen’s d (95% CIb) P value*
FCV-19Sa,g (1–5) 2.45 ± 0.80 1.85 0.80 (0.70, 0.79) < 0.001
General healthd (1–5) 3.50 ± 0.93 3.57 − 0.07 (− 0,11, − 0.03) < 0.001
Psychological distress (SCL-5)e (1–5) 2.68 ± 1.03 2.12 0.55 (0.51, 0.59) < 0.001
Overall Quality of lifef (0–10) 5.50 ± 2.16 8.00 − 1.16 (− 1.21, − 1.11) < 0.001
  1. aOne-sample t-test mean sample score and unadjusted norm score FCV-19S (Iversen et al. 2021)
  2. bConfidence interval
  3. cAdjusted for age and gender
  4. *One sample student’s t-test
  5. dIn line with the SF-36 scoring algorithm, the item was reversed. Higher score reflects better perceived general health
  6. eHigher score on Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-5) reflect more psychological distress
  7. fHigher score of overall quality of health reflect better perceived overall quality of life
  8. gHigher score of FCV-19S reflect higher level of fear of COVID-19