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Table 1 General characteristics of adolescent QoL and personality traits with MS study

From: The association of quality of life and personality characteristics with adolescent metabolic syndrome: a cohort study

Variables All Metabolic syndrome (MS)
No 1 ~ 2 MS Components Yes P
Sample size 1961 1052 (53.65%) 817 (41.66%) 92 (4.69%)  
Region
Urban 1467 (74.81%) 829 (78.80%) 576 (70.50%) 62 (67.39%) < 0.01
Rural 494 (25.19%) 223 (21.20%) 241 (29.50%) 30 (32.61%)  
Gender, male (n (%)) 1020 (52.01%) 554 (52.66%) 415 (50.8%) 51 (55.43%) 0.58
Age, y 11.68 ± 0.60 11.65 ± 0.60 11.72 ± 0.60 11.75 ± 0.60 0.04
Anthropometric measures in 2014
Age, y 7.26 ± 0.59 7.24 ± 0.59 7.28 ± 0.58 7.29 ± 0.60 0.33
Height, cm 124.52 ± 6.11 123.67 ± 5.86a 125.27 ± 6.15 b 127.57 ± 6.72 c < 0.01
Weight, kg 25.92 ± 5.58 24.27 ± 4.13a 27.27 ± 5.98 b 32.65 ± 7.61 c < 0.01
BMI, kg/m2 16.59 ± 2.53 15.79 ± 1.82a 17.24 ± 2.75 b 19.84 ± 3.09 c < 0.01
Waist circumference, cm 55.69 ± 7.09 53.59 ± 5.55a 57.40 ± 7.48 b 64.23 ± 8.46 c < 0.01
SBP, mmHg 100.6 ± 8.94 98.85 ± 8.36a 102.14 ± 9.04 b 106.70 ± 9.33 c < 0.01
DBP, mmHg 62.68 ± 7.76 61.57 ± 7.51a 63.72 ± 7.79 b 66.08 ± 8.04 c < 0.01
Anthropometric measures in 2019
Height, cm 151.75 ± 7.98 150.22 ± 7.89a 153.21 ± 7.67b 156.33 ± 7.59c < 0.01
Weight, kg 44.30 ± 10.98 39.63 ± 7.69a 48.58 ± 11.24b 59.62 ± 11.30c < 0.01
BMI, kg/m2 19.07 ± 3.76 17.45 ± 2.50a 20.58 ± 4.01b 24.22 ± 3.32c < 0.01
Waist circumference, cm 65.83 ± 10.03 61.20 ± 5.98a 70.06 ± 10.77b 81.18 ± 8.26c < 0.01
Hip circumference, cm 81.68 ± 8.28 78.45 ± 6.49a 84.68 ± 8.41b 92.05 ± 6.58c < 0.01
SBP, mmHg 105.71 ± 9.49 102.76 ± 8.02a 108.29 ± 9.62b 116.62 ± 9.36c < 0.01
DBP, mmHg 62.82 ± 6.70 61.40 ± 5.87a 63.98 ± 7.07b 68.72 ± 7.05c < 0.01
Puberty 536 (27.33%) 267 (25.38%) 246 (30.11%) 23 (25.00%) 0.11
Serum biochemical indexes in 2014
FBG, mmol/l 4.12 ± 0.6 4.07 ± 0.59a 4.17 ± 0.58ab 4.29 ± 0.71b < 0.01
TC, mmol/l 3.51 ± 0.72 3.49 ± 0.75 3.54 ± 0.68 3.62 ± 0.69 0.25
TG, mmol/l 0.91 ± 0.53 0.82 ± 0.42a 0.99 ± 0.58b 1.36 ± 0.78c < 0.01
HDL-C, mmol/l 1.26 ± 0.27 1.30 ± 0.27a 1.23 ± 0.27b 1.10 ± 0.22c < 0.01
LDL-C, mmol/l 1.73 ± 0.56 1.68 ± 0.53a 1.78 ± 0.59a 1.99 ± 0.63b < 0.01
Serum biochemical indexes in 2019
FBG, mmol/l 4.45 ± 0.43 4.45 ± 0.38 4.45 ± 0.49 4.50 ± 0.51 0.58
TC, mmol/l 3.52 ± 0.61 3.53 ± 0.57 3.50 ± 0.66 3.47 ± 0.62 0.43
TG, mmol/l 1.06 ± 0.50 0.83 ± 0.20a 1.26 ± 0.55b 1.85 ± 0.84c < 0.01
HDL-C, mmol/l 1.44 ± 0.31 1.55 ± 0.28a 1.34 ± 0.28b 1.06 ± 0.20c < 0.01
LDL-C, mmol/l 1.84 ± 0.44 1.81 ± 0.42a 1.86 ± 0.46a 1.94 ± 0.46b < 0.01
Metabolic syndrome components
Central obesity 428 (21.83%) _ 341 (41.74%) 87 (94.57%) < 0.01
Elevated triglycerides 499 (25.45%) _ 416 (50.92%) 83 (90.22%) < 0.01
Reduced HDL-C 182 (9.28%) _ 122 (14.93%) 60 (65.22%) < 0.01
Elevated blood pressure 192 (9.79%) _ 141 (17.26%) 51 (55.43%) < 0.01
Impaired fasting glucose 30 (1.53%) _ 27 (3.30%) 3 (3.26%) < 0.01
Perinatal measures
Fatal weight of pregnancy week
Appropriate for gestational age 1097 (68.18%) 599 (69.41%) 444 (66.37%) 54 (70.13%) 0.04
Small for gestational age 126 (7.83%) 79 (9.15%) 43 (6.43%) 4 (5.19%)  
Large for gestational age 386 (23.99%) 185 (21.44%) 182 (27.20%) 19 (24.68%)  
Mother’s education, y
 ~ 9 641 (33.42%) 335 (32.56%) 283 (35.42%) 23 (25.56%) 0.04
 ~ 12 660 (34.41%) 363 (35.28%) 254 (31.79%) 43 (47.78%)  
 ≥ 15 617 (32.17%) 331 (32.17%) 262 (32.79%) 24 (26.67%)  
13 domains of QoL
Self-satisfy 50.07 ± 11.35 49.81 ± 11.32 50.54 ± 11.40 48.99 ± 11.18 0.25
Relationship of teacher and pupil 53.59 ± 10.08 53.50 ± 9.97 53.82 ± 10.09 52.67 ± 11.29 0.53
Physical feeling 49.94 ± 10.75 49.97 ± 10.57 49.99 ± 10.89 49.25 ± 11.61 0.82
Companionship 53.74 ± 10.51 53.42 ± 10.46 54.33 ± 10.30 52.24 ± 12.49 0.07
Parenthood 51.27 ± 11.36 51.18 ± 11.17 51.45 ± 11.70 50.81 ± 10.64 0.82
Physical activity ability 50.14 ± 10.66 50.93 ± 10.45a 49.48 ± 10.80a 46.89 ± 10.84b < 0.01
Learning ability and attitude 51.77 ± 10.24 51.50 ± 10.15 52.26 ± 10.16 50.53 ± 11.69 0.14
Self-esteem 50.34 ± 11.06 50.17 ± 10.96 50.76 ± 11.09 48.64 ± 11.83 0.17
Negative emotion 47.71 ± 11.25 47.57 ± 11.26 48.05 ± 11.09 46.41 ± 12.47 0.34
Attitude of doing homework 51.47 ± 9.06 51.57 ± 8.92 51.48 ± 9.05 50.25 ± 10.77 0.41
Activity opportunity 54.60 ± 9.62 54.16 ± 9.59 55.26 ± 9.64 53.69 ± 9.46 0.03
Living convenience 54.45 ± 7.73 54.28 ± 7.60 54.57 ± 7.96 55.18 ± 7.18 0.47
Other (picky-eating and surroundings) 50.66 ± 10.12 50.04 ± 10.24a 51.25 ± 9.93a 52.49 ± 10.03b < 0.01
Four factors of QoL
Psychosocial health factor 64.79 ± 10.37 64.64 ± 10.19 65.18 ± 10.46 63.13 ± 11.45 0.46
Physical and mental health factor 35.87 ± 5.98 35.89 ± 5.87 35.94 ± 6.06 35.12 ± 6.50 0.16
Living environment factor 24.01 ± 4.28 24.14 ± 4.24a 23.94 ± 4.33a 23.11 ± 4.19b 0.07
Quality of life satisfaction factor 24.90 ± 4.37 24.75 ± 4.40 25.11 ± 4.36 24.79 ± 4.21 0.21
Total score of QoL 52.61 ± 12.37 52.47 ± 12.17ab 53.06 ± 12.56a 50.33 ± 12.85b 0.12
Personality characteristics
Extraversion (E) 50.30 ± 13.04 50.69 ± 13.19a 50.13 ± 12.86a 47.33 ± 12.67b 0.05
Neuroticism (N) 50.28 ± 14.67 50.48 ± 14.55 49.80 ± 14.60 52.31 ± 16.59 0.26
Psychoticism (P) 39.86 ± 8.96 39.92 ± 8.94 39.71 ± 8.86 40.58 ± 10.11 0.66
Lie (L) 53.43 ± 8.89 53.41 ± 8.67 53.41 ± 9.09 53.89 ± 9.68 0.88
  1. a,b,c: the difference among groups using “a”, “b”, “c” labelled, different letters mean the difference existed between two groups