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Table 1 Demographic clinical characteristics of Ischemic heart disease (IHD) patient according to health literacy

From: Association of health literacy and medication adherence with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with ischemic heart disease

Characteristics Health literacy, n = 251 p values
Inadequate, n = 176 Adequate, n = 75
Frequency (%) Average score ± SD Frequency (%) Average score ± SD
Age (years)      
< 65 128 (72.7) 11.98 ± 10.44 58 (77.3) 48.71 ± 8.89 0.446
> 65 48 (27.3) 11.48 ± 10.74 17 (22.7) 49.18 ± 9.61  
Gender      
Male 98 (55.7) 14.90 ± 11.32 59 (78.7) 49.22 ± 8.77 0.001**
Female 78 (44.3) 8.01 ± 7.88 16 (21.3) 47.31 ± 9.93  
Residence area      
Urban 154 (87.5) 12.39 ± 10.64 67 (89.3) 49.27 ± 9.07 0.682
Rural 22 (12.5) 8.05 ± 8.66 8 (10.7) 45.00 ± 7.82  
Educational status      
No—primary education 160 (90.9) 10.09 ± 9.178 19 (25.3) 44.53 ± 7.14 0.0001**
Secondary—higher education 16 (19.1) 29.37 ± 5.60 56 (74.7) 50.27 ± 9.14  
Social status      
Upper 4 (2.3) 23 ± 15.47 6 (8) 51.17 ± 10.98 0.0001**
Middle 25 (14.2) 19.72 ± 10.69 38 (50.7) 50.47 ± 8.89  
Lower 147 (83.5) 10.2 ± 9.57 31 (41.3) 46.32 ± 8.41  
Employment status      
Employed full or part time 34 (19.3) 15.38 ± 11.00 27 (36.0) 50.00 ± 8.88 0.005*
Unemployed 142 (80.7) 11.00 ± 10.22 48 (64.0) 48.15 ± 9.08  
Type of ischemic condition      
Angina 35 (19.9) 12.34 ± 10.11 17 (22.7) 45.00 ± 8.53 0.619
Myocardial Infarction 141 (80.1) 11.72 ± 10.62 58 (77.3) 49.93 ± 8.88  
History of revascularization      
Yes 43 (24.4) 14.05 ± 12.02 38 (50.7) 49.61 ± 8.38 0.0001**
No 133 (75.6) 11.14 ± 9.90 37 (49.3) 48.00 ± 9.63  
Time since first ischemic episodes (years)      
≤ 5 135 (76.7) 12.30 ± 10.6 57 (76.0) 49.09 ± 8.84 0.904
> 5 41 (23.3) 10.34 ± 10.10 18 (24.0) 47.94 ± 9.67  
Number of other CVD conditions      
0 161 (91.5) 11.98 ± 10.59 69 (92.0) 49.45 ± 9.04 0.891
 ≥ 1 15 (8.5) 10.40 ± 9.58 6 (8.0) 41.50 ± 4.04  
Number of CVD risk factors      
0–1 58 (33.0) 15.76 ± 11.61 24 (32.0) 48.75 ± 8.86  
2 57 (32.4) 9.65 ± 9.43 28 (37.3) 48.14 ± 8.53 0.724
≥ 3 61 (34.7) 10.18 ± 9.37 23 (30.7) 49.70 ± 9.97  
Medication adherence      
Adherent 136 (77.3) 12.16 ± 10.14 63 (84) 49.06 ± 8.91 0.229
Non-adherent 40 (22.7) 10.78 ± 11.68 12 (16) 47.50 ± 9.72  
  1. p values were estimated based on differences in frequency distribution
  2. CVD = cardiovascular disease. Health Literacy (HL)Scores; Inadequate = 0–34, Adequate = 35–64, SD; standard deviation
  3. *p ≤ 0.05–0.002, **≤ 0.001–0.0001