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Table 5 Performance of the EQ-5D-3L in screening for depressive symptoms

From: The performance of the EQ-5D-3L in screening for anxiety and depressive symptoms in hospital and community settings

Cut-point Hospital setting (N = 492) Community setting (N = 400)
 ≥ 2  ≥ 3  ≥ 2  ≥ 3
Any depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10)     
EQ-5D-3L Anxiety/depression dimension     
 Sensitivity 68.9% 12.2% 73.5% 20.4%
 Specificity 68.8% 96.2% 79.6% 98.3%
 LR+  2.21 3.24 3.59 11.97
 LR− 0.45 0.91 0.33 0.81
 PPV 48.5% 57.8% 33.4% 62.5%
 NPV 83.8% 72.0% 95.6% 89.9%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.70 (0.65, 0.74) 0.78 (0.71, 0.85)
EQ-5D-3L index score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 48.7% 13.5% 28.6% 4.1%
 Specificity 28.0% 61.6% 36.7% 69.6%
 LR+  0.68 0.35 0.45 0.13
 LR− 1.83 1.40 1.95 1.38
 PPV 22.4% 13.0% 5.9% 1.8%
 NPV 56.1% 62.5% 78.7% 83.9%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.34 (0.29, 0.39) 0.30 (0.24, 0.36)
EQ-VAS score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 51.0% 14.3% 28.5% 6.1%
 Specificity 29.0% 71.0% 29.8% 68.5%
 LR+  0.72 0.49 0.41 0.19
 LR− 1.69 1.21 2.40 1.37
 PPV 23.5% 17.4% 5.3% 2.6%
 NPV 58.1% 66.0% 75.0% 84.0%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.38 (0.33, 0.43) 0.27 (0.20, 0.33)
Moderate-severe symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15)     
EQ-5D-3L Anxiety/depression dimension     
 Sensitivity 76.2% 17.5% 85.7% 35.7%
 Specificity 62.4% 95.4% 75.2% 97.2%
 LR+  2.03 3.76 3.46 12.56
 LR− 0.38 0.87 0.19 0.66
 PPV 22.6% 35.4% 11.4% 31.6%
 NPV 94.8% 88.9% 99.3% 97.7%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.71 (0.65, 0.77) 0.84 (0.73, 0.94)
EQ-5D-3L index score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 44.4% 11.1% 21.4% 0.0%
 Specificity 32.0% 66.1% 39.5% 71.8%
 LR+  0.65 0.33 0.35 0.00
 LR− 1.74 1.34 1.99 1.39
 PPV 8.6% 4.5% 1.3% 0.0%
 NPV 80.0% 83.8% 93.3% 95.2%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.34 (0.28, 0.41) 0.27 (0.19, 0.36)
EQ-VAS score tertiles     
 Sensitivity 45.2% 8.1% 28.6% 7.1%
 Specificity 32.1% 73.0% 33.6% 70.8%
 LR+  0.67 0.30 0.43 0.24
 LR− 1.71 1.26 2.13 1.31
 PPV 8.8% 4.2% 1.5% 0.9%
 NPV 80.3% 84.6% 92.8% 95.5%
 AUROC (95% CI) 0.35 (0.29, 0.42) 0.29 (0.17, 0.41)
  1. LR+, positive likelihood ratio; LR−, negative likelihood ratio; AUROC, area under receiver operating curve; EQ-5D-3L index score tertiles: 2 = quintile 2, 3 = quintile 3. EQ-5D-3L anxiety/depression dimension: 2 = moderately anxious or depressed, 3 = extremely anxious or depressed. PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value. Bolded values indicate the cut-point that maximizes sensitivity and specificity for each component