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Table 3 Adjusted quality of life (QoL) according to chronic disease and multimorbidity

From: Chronic conditions, multimorbidity, and quality of life among patients attending monk healers and primary care clinics in Thailand

Variable QoL: Psychological QoL: Physical QoL: Social QoL: Environmental Overall QoL
Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI)
All 64.0 (63.0, 65.1) 68.9 (67.8, 70.0) 72.1 (71.2, 73.1) 64.7 (63.8, 65.7) 67.5 (66.6, 68.3)
Monk healer 62.6 (61.0, 64.1) 69.3 (67.7, 70.9) 72.0 (70.6, 73.4) 62.0 (60.6, 63.4) 66.5 (65.2, 67.7)
Primary care 66.0 (64.9, 67.2)*** 69.3 (68.1, 70.5) 72.4 (71.4, 73.5) 67.4 (66.2, 68.5)*** 68.8 (67.9, 69.8)**
Hypertension 64.0 (61.9, 66.2) 68.5 (66.3, 70.8) 72.5 (70.5, 74.5) 65.8 (63.8, 67.8) 67.6 (66.0, 69.5)
Heart attack or stroke 62.2 (57.9, 66.5) 64.6 (60.2, 68.9)* 69.4 (67.3, 71.2) 65.1 (61.0, 69.3) 65.9 (62.3, 69.4)
High blood cholesterol 63.4 (61.1, 65.7) 67.8 (65.3, 70.2) 72.8 (70.6, 75.0) 64.6 (62.4, 66.8) 67.2 (65.3, 69.1)
Diabetes 62.3 (59.6, 64.9) 68.3 (65.5, 71.2) 71.9 (68.4, 74.4) 64.0 (61.4, 66.6) 66.7 (64.5, 68.9)
Emphysema/asthma 54.5 (49.6, 59.4)*** 61.3 (56.1, 66.6)** 66.0 (61.3, 70.7)** 59.0 (54.3, 63.7)* 60.2 (56.2, 64.3)***
Sore joints, e.g., arthritis, gout 61.0 (57.9, 64.2)* 67.9 (64.6, 71.3) 71.5 (68.6, 74.5) 61.3 (58.3, 64.3)* 65.5 (62.9, 68.1)
Osteoporosis 60.8 (56.0, 65.5) 63.8 (58.7, 68.8)* 71.0 (66.5, 75.5) 62.6 (58.1, 67.1) 64.5 (60.6, 68.4)
Cancer or a malignancy of any kind 59.5 (55.6, 65.6)* 66.9 (61.6, 72.3) 70.6 (65.8, 75.3) 65.6 (60.8, 70.4) 66.2 (62.1, 70.3)
Migraine headaches 59.5 (56.9, 62.1)*** 64.4 (61.7, 67.2)*** 67.5 (65.1, 69.9)*** 59.4 (57.0, 61.9)*** 62.7 (60.6, 64.9)***
Ulcer (a stomach, duodenal or peptic ulcer) 60.1 (57.2, 63.0)** 66.3 (63.2, 69.5) 69.6 (66.8, 72.4) 61.3 (58.5, 64.1)** 64.3 (61.9, 66.7)**
Fatigue disorder 57.7 (55.1, 60.2)*** 65.6 (62.9, 68.3)** 68.2 (65.8, 70.7)*** 61.8 (59.3, 64.2)** 63.3 (61.2, 65.4)***
Sleeping problem 58.7 (55.7, 61.6)*** 62.1 (59.0, 65.2)*** 65.9 (63.1, 68.7)*** 59.2 (56.4, 62.0)*** 61.5 (59.1, 63.9)***
Common mental disorder 53.1 (51.2, 55.0)*** 60.6 (57.9, 62.8)*** 63.3 (61.4, 65.2)*** 56.5 (54.6, 58.3)*** 58.5 (56.9, 60.1)***
Substance use disorder 59.3 (55.2, 63.4)* 66.5 (63.4, 69.6) 67.7 (63.8, 71.5)* 60.3 (56.5, 64.2)* 63.6 (60.3, 67.0)*
Pattern of morbidity/multi-morbidity
 No chronic condition 68.2 (66.3, 70.1) 72.8 (70.7, 74.8) 74.8 (72.9, 76.6) 69.0 (67.2, 70.6) 71.2 (69.6, 72.7)
 One chronic condition 65.9 (63.8, 68.0) 70.4 (68.1, 72.7) 74.9 (72.9, 77.0) 65.7 (63.7, 67.7) 69.2 (67.5, 71.0)
 Two or more chronic conditions 59.6 (58.1, 61.2) 65.3 (63.6, 67.0) 68.7 (67.2, 70.2) 61.1 (59.6, 62.6) 63.7 (62.4, 65.0)
 Two chronic conditions 63.3 (60.8, 65.9) 66.1 (63.4, 68.9) 70.6 (68.2, 73.1) 62.4 (60.0, 64.8) 65.7 (63.6, 67.8)
 Three chronic conditions 59.5 (56.4, 62.6) 66.0 (62.8, 69.4) 69.5 (66.5, 72.5) 59.8 (56.8, 62.8) 63.9 (61.3, 66.5)
 Four or more chronic conditions 56.2 (53.7, 58.6)*** 63.9 (61.3, 66.6)*** 66.4 (64.1, 68.8)*** 60.5 (58.2, 62.9)*** 61.8 (59.7, 63.8)***
  1. ***p > 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; Adjusted for age, sex, employment status, marital status, education, economic status, comorbidity, and health care setting