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Table 3 Percentage of caregivers’ understanding in core domains of SC and RB

From: Qualitative evaluation of the Autism Behavior Inventory: use of cognitive interviewing to establish validity of a caregiver report scale for autism spectrum disorder

Domain Understanding
Social communication Round 1
n (%)
Round 2
n (%)
1 Responds to familiar things, e.g., when a particular song is sung, when a familiar name is mentioned 30/33 (85%) Removeda
2 Shows appropriate affection towards familiar people 32/33 (97%) 12 (100%)
3 Shows an interest in what other people are doing 31/32 (97%) 11/12 (92%)
4 Responds to attempts to initiate social interaction 28/31 (90%) 12/12 (100%)
5 Gives things to others in order to get help, e.g., brings you a box he/she can’t open 28/30 (93%) 12/12 (100%)
6 Is flexible when playing with others or taking part in social activities 30/31 (97%) 10/10 (100%)
7 Is creative or imaginative in play or other activities, e.g., make believe play or has new or original ideas 31/31 (100%) 11/11 (100%)
8 Is able to take turns in conversation, e.g., responds to and builds on what has been said, using speech or signs or gestures 29/31 (94%) 11/11 (100%)
9 Directs facial expression towards other people to communicate feelings, e.g., gives eye contact, shows emotion on face 31/31 (100%) 10/10 (100%)
10 Offers information about his/her own thoughts or feelings, e.g., able to talk or sign about what he/she is thinking and feeling 26/26 (100%) 11/11 (100%)
11 Waves ‘hello’ and ‘goodbye’ 27/27 (100%) 11/11 (100%)
12 Uses common gestures, e.g., nods, shakes head 27/28 (96%) 11/11 (100%)
13 Combines gestures with vocalizations to enhance communication, e.g., uses actions and words to get point across 25/25 (100%) 11/11 (100%)
14 Use tone of voice appropriately, e.g., tone changes according to what he/she is saying 25/26 (96%) 11/11 (100%)
15 Responds to other people’s emotions, e.g., notices or comments on how others are feeling 27/27 (100%) 10/11 (91%)
16 Looks when he/she is called or praised 27/27 (100%) 9/11 (82%)
17 Looks where another person is looking or pointing 27/27 (100%) 10/11 (91%)
18 Shows pleasure in shared interactions, e.g., enjoys doing things with people 26/27 (96%) 11/11 (100%)
19 Uses facial expressions that are appropriate to the situation, e.g., looks sad when someone is hurt, smiles when happy 26/26 (100%) 10/11 (91%)
20 Resists affection from familiar people 25/26 (96%) 11/11 (100%)
21 Shows inappropriate affection towards unfamiliar people, e.g., hugging people that he or she does not know 24/25 (96%) 11/12 (92%)
22 Has difficulty interacting with peers, e.g., finds it hard to make and keep friends 24/25 (96%) 11/12 (92%)
23 Says socially inappropriate things OR makes inappropriate social approaches, e.g., will tell people they have a large nose, touches or strokes clothes or body parts 26/27 (96%) 10/11 (91%)
24 Attends to parts of sentences and misinterprets whole, e.g., focus on one or two words and misses the point 14/22 (64%) 7/11 (64%)a
Restrictive behaviors
25 Gets upset over small changes in routine 26/26 (100%) 12/12 (100%)
26 Has difficulty being flexible, e.g., has a hard time changing his/her mind 24/24 (100%) 12/12 (100%)
27 Resists trying out new things, e.g., won’t go to new places, avoids new foods 24/24 (100%) 12/12 (100%)
28 Insists on doing things the same way each time 23/23 (100%) 11/12 (92%)
29 Is fixated on certain topics or activities and unable to move on 24/24 (100%) 12/12 (100%)
30 Has an unusually narrow range of interests 21/24 (88%) 11/12 (92%)
31 Repeats /echoes what others say, e.g., immediately repeats words or phrases 23/23 (100%) 12/12 (100%)
  1. RB restrictive behaviors, SC social communication. Please note more than 90% of caregivers understood all items in the associated domains (not shown)
  2. aItems with < 90% understanding in round 1 that were reworded or removed for round 2 of interviews