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Table 4 Differential item functioning results for the LTCQ and the LTCQ-8 (N = 1204)

From: Rasch analysis of the long-term conditions questionnaire (LTCQ) and development of a short-form (LTCQ-8)

Differential item functioning LTCQ LTCQ-8
Gender No DIF No DIF
Age (quartiles) Item 12: more severe for individuals 18–59 (0.46, p = 0.001) Item 10: more severe for individuals 80 + (0.46, p = 0.001)
  Item 12: less severe for individuals 80 + (0.45, p = 0.001) Item 12: less severe for individuals 80 + (0.48, p = 0.001)
Number of physical health LTCs Item 18: more severe for individuals with 1 physical health LTC (0.51, p = 0.001) No DIF
Number of mental health LTCs Item 3: less severe for individuals with 2 or more mental health LTCs (0.46, p = 0.001) No DIF
  Item16: less severe for individuals with 2 or more mental health LTCs (0.56, p = 0.001)  
Cohort Item 2: less severe for individuals in primary care (0.61, p = 0.001) Item 10: less severe for individuals in primary care (0.51, p = 0.001)
  Item 9: more severe for individuals in primary care (0.59, p = 0.001) Item 15: less severe for individuals in social care (0.48, p = 0.001)
  Item 10: less severe for individuals in primary care (0.60, p = 0.001)  
  Item 18: more severe for individuals in primary care (0.44, p = 0.001)  
Admitted to hospital in last 12 months due to LTC No DIF No DIF