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Table 4 Adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from multivariable logistic regression for mental health by race/ethnicity

From: Racial/ethnic differences in health-related quality of life among Hawaii adult population

Variable White Chinese Filipino Japanese NHPI Hispanic
Predisposing variable       
Sex, Male 0.91 (0.74–1.12) 0.73 (0.43–1.24) 0.99 (0.68–1.45) 1.06 (0.80–1.40) 1.26 (0.95–1.65) 0.72 (0.42–1.23)
Age (Ref: 18–44 years)       
 45–64 years 0.76 (0.59–0.98)+ 0.82 (0.46–1.47) 0.59 (0.38–0.91)+ 1.17 (0.81–1.69) 0.76 (0.55–1.06) 0.74 (0.43–1.27)
 ≥ 65 years 0.33 (0.24–0.46)* 0.37 (0.15–0.88)+ 0.73 (0.40–1.32) 0.62 (0.37–1.02) 0.34 (0.19–0.60)* 0.56 (0.24–1.29)
Marital Status (Ref: married)       
 Single 1.04 (0.80–1.36) 1.24 (0.65–2.36) 1.38 (0.86–2.21) 1.15 (0.80–1.67) 1.01 (0.73–1.41) 0.87 (0.44–1.74)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 1.08 (0.84–1.39) 1.16 (0.58–2.31) 1.35 (0.78–2.33) 1.14 (0.81–1.60) 1.18 (0.86–1.64) 0.65 (0.35–1.21)
Education (Ref: ≤ high school)       
 Some college 0.99 (0.78–1.26) 0.91 (0.45–1.85) 0.83 (0.56–1.24) 1.01 (0.71–1.43) 1.25 (0.95–1.66) 0.63 (0.35–1.15)
 College graduate 0.67 (0.52–0.86)* 0.90 (0.45–1.80) 1.13 (0.71–1.79) 1.26 (0.89–1.77) 0.92 (0.63–1.35) 0.59 (0.29–1.20)
Enabling variable       
Employment (Ref: unemployed)       
 Employed 0.79 (0.64–0.97)+ 0.57 (0.33–0.97)+ 0.74 (0.50–1.08) 0.93 (0.70–1.24) 0.75 (0.57–0.99)+ 0.89 (0.51–1.55)
Income (Ref: < $50,000)       
 ≥ $50,000 0.80 (0.62–1.02) 1.04 (0.55–1.95) 1.54 (0.98–2.41) 0.69 (0.50–0.96)+ 0.80 (0.57–1.12) 0.77 (0.34–1.72)
 Missing 1.07 (0.69–1.66) 0.92 (0.33–2.56) 0.74 (0.36–1.51) 0.91 (0.55–1.50) 0.80 (0.49–1.31) 0.28 (0.10–0.76)+
Housing status (Ref: own)       
 Other 0.86 (0.67–1.10) 0.88 (0.47–1.63) 1.23 (0.8–1.88) 1.12 (0.79–1.60) 1.07 (0.77–1.48) 1.00 (0.52–1.92)
Residential area, Oahu 1.14 (0.94–1.39) 1.54 (0.82–2.91) 1.02 (0.72–1.46) 0.92 (0.70–1.20) 1.09 (0.85–1.40) 1.16 (0.73–1.85)
Have healthcare coverage 0.90 (0.61–1.30) 0.43 (0.22–0.85)+ 1.08 (0.60–1.93) 1.07 (0.55–2.09) 1.29 (0.89–1.88) 0.88 (0.42–1.84)
Couldn’t see doctor because of medical cost 2.14 (1.61–2.85)* 4.36 (1.99–9.53)* 1.72 (0.98–3.04) 2.59 (1.51–4.46)* 1.97 (1.43–2.72)* 1.41 (0.81–2.47)
Need variable       
Exercise 0.56 (0.44–0.72)* 1.06 (0.59–1.90) 0.78 (0.51–1.20) 0.70 (0.53–0.93)+ 0.72 (0.55–0.95)+ 0.66 (0.40–1.09)
Heavy drinking 1.08 (0.81–1.42) 1.81 (0.59–5.52) 1.60 (0.78–3.29) 1.91 (1.22–2.99)* 1.43 (0.98–2.08) 1.09 (0.52–2.30)
Smoking (Ref: current)       
 Former/never 0.71 (0.55–0.91)* 0.44 (0.23–0.83)+ 0.55 (0.34–0.89)+ 0.65 (0.44–0.98)+ 0.73 (0.56–0.96)+ 0.63 (0.31–1.26)
H/O heart attack 1.68 (1.18–2.38)* 1.06 (0.19–5.81) 2.24 (0.89–5.66) 1.31 (0.69–2.47) 1.36 (0.76–2.44) 4.29 (1.34–13.72)+
H/O CHD 1.35 (0.88–2.07) 1.80 (0.28–11.58) 1.07 (0.50–2.26) 1.46 (0.81–2.66) 0.95 (0.53–1.72) 0.25 (0.06–1.00)+
H/O stroke 1.12 (0.71–1.77) 0.49 (0.10–2.48) 1.06 (0.34–3.26) 1.11 (0.65–1.91) 1.63 (0.84–3.18) 1.13 (0.32–4.00)
H/O asthma 1.16 (0.90–1.49) 1.33 (0.69–2.57) 0.97 (0.61–1.56) 1.20 (0.81–1.78) 1.37 (1.03–1.82)+ 2.53 (1.41–4.53)*
H/O cancer 0.99 (0.78–1.25) 0.46 (0.22–0.97)+ 1.86 (0.87–3.97) 1.57 (0.98–2.54) 1.04 (0.66–1.64) 1.03 (0.53–2.00)
H/O COPD 1.38 (1.01–1.89)+ 1.46 (0.60–3.57) 0.50 (0.19–1.29) 1.66 (1.00–2.76) 2.07 (1.19–3.59)* 1.18 (0.54–2.56)
H/O arthritis 1.31 (1.07–1.61)+ 1.37 (0.70–2.68) 1.26 (0.83–1.91) 1.58 (1.18–2.10)* 1.69 (1.22–2.36)* 1.17 (0.64–2.11)
H/O depression 5.94 (4.86–7.26)* 8.34 (4.77–14.61)* 6.88 (4.46–10.6)* 4.77 (3.51–6.48)* 4.50 (3.41–5.94)* 9.81 (6.02–15.99)*
H/O kidney disease 1.52 (0.99–2.31) 0.89 (0.30–2.71) 1.81 (0.80–4.08) 1.67 (1.02–2.74)+ 1.16 (0.65–2.07) 0.51 (0.22–1.18)
H/O diabetes 1.02 (0.75–1.38) 0.91 (0.37–2.26) 1.09 (0.65–1.82) 0.81 (0.56–1.18) 1.03 (0.73–1.45) 0.88 (0.44–1.75)
Obese/overweight 1.24 (1.01–1.52)+ 0.89 (0.54–1.47) 1.17 (0.82–1.68) 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 0.96 (0.71–1.30) 0.63 (0.37–1.07)
  1. Mental health was dichotomized as ≥ 14 unhealthy days (1) vs. < 14 unhealthy days (0). A multivariable logistic regression with quasi-binomial distribution was conducted, accounting for the complex sampling design
  2. NHPI, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander; H/O, History of; CHD, Coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Ref, reference
  3. +P value < 0.05; *P value < 0.01