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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from multivariable logistic regression for general health by race/ethnicity

From: Racial/ethnic differences in health-related quality of life among Hawaii adult population

Variable White Chinese Filipino Japanese NHPI Hispanic
Predisposing variable       
Sex, male 1.22 (1.02–1.45)+ 1.38 (0.92–2.06) 0.80 (0.62–1.05) 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 1.12 (0.92–1.37) 1.29 (0.84–1.97)
Age (Ref: 18–44 years)       
 45–64 years 1.48 (1.13–1.93)* 1.36 (0.92–2.06) 1.38 (0.97–1.96) 1.81 (1.30–2.51)* 1.29 (0.99–1.67) 2.78 (1.70–4.56)*
 ≥ 65 years 1.21 (0.87–1.68) 1.38 (0.67–2.85) 1.03 (0.65–1.62) 1.45 (0.99–2.10) 1.16 (0.81–1.66) 2.70 (1.38–5.31)*
Marital status (Ref: married)       
 Single 1.07 (0.82–1.41) 1.07 (0.60–1.91) 1.19 (0.80–1.77) 0.96 (0.72–1.26) 0.95 (0.73–1.23) 1.22 (0.70–2.14)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 1.02 (0.83–1.24) 0.88 (0.53–1.47) 1.31 (0.93–1.84) 0.97 (0.77–1.22) 0.89 (0.68–1.17) 0.91 (0.53–1.55)
Education (Ref: ≤ high school)       
 Some college 0.74 (0.60–0.91)* 0.85 (0.53–1.35) 0.91 (0.68–1.22) 0.82 (0.66–1.03) 0.89 (0.72–1.11) 1.07 (0.67–1.71)
 College graduate 0.51 (0.41–0.57)* 0.59 (0.36–0.97)+ 0.92 (0.66–1.29) 0.61 (0.49–0.77)* 0.73 (0.54–0.98)+ 0.57 (0.33–0.99)+
Enabling variable       
Employment (Ref: unemployed)       
 Employed 0.47 (0.39–0.57)* 0.72 (0.45–1.20) 0.65 (0.47–0.91)+ 0.77 (0.62–0.97)+ 0.93 (0.75–1.16) 0.63 (0.40–0.98)+
Income (Ref: < $50,000)       
 ≥ $50,000 0.60 (0.48–0.73)* 0.88 (0.55–1.41) 0.74 (0.54–1.01) 0.69 (0.55–0.86)* 0.84 (0.66–1.08) 0.59 (0.32–1.07)
 Missing 0.92 (0.63–1.33) 1.17 (0.58–2.38) 0.84 (0.52–1.36) 1.54 (1.16–2.06)* 0.88 (0.60–1.27) 0.66 (0.26–1.68)
Housing status (Ref: own)       
 Other 1.13 (0.89–1.43) 1.43 (0.85–2.42) 0.89 (0.66–1.21) 1.30 (1.02–1.65)+ 1.08 (0.84–1.39) 1.24 (0.71–2.15)
Residential area, Oahu 0.99 (0.83–1.17) 0.73 (0.45–1.20) 1.22 (0.94–1.57) 0.98 (0.81–1.18) 1.18 (0.97–1.43) 1.98 (1.29–3.04)*
Have healthcare coverage 1.06 (0.74–1.52) 1.10 (0.48–2.23) 0.68 (0.44–1.04) 1.20 (0.74–1.96) 1.14 (0.80–1.64) 0.59 (0.30–1.19)
Couldn’t see doctor because of medical cost 1.62 (1.23–2.13)* 1.04 (0.48–2.23) 1.19 (0.80–1.77) 2.43 (1.53–3.86)* 1.40 (1.03–1.91)+ 1.83 (1.04–3.20)+
Need variable       
Exercise 0.38 (0.31–0.46)* 0.51 (0.34–0.77)* 0.69 (0.52–0.93)+ 0.51 (0.42–0.62)* 0.49 (0.40–0.62)* 0.45 (0.29–0.71)*
Heavy drinking 0.73 (0.54–0.98)+ 1.38 (0.46–4.18) 0.67 (0.38–1.20) 1.22 (0.81–1.84) 1.12 (0.80–1.56) 1.00 (0.51–1.95)
Smoking (Ref: current)       
 Former/never 0.85 (0.67–1.09) 0.64 (0.31–1.33) 0.55 (0.37–0.83)* 1.24 (0.90–1.70) 0.61 (0.48–0.78)* 0.62 (0.34–1.14)
H/O heart attack 1.85 (1.30–2.62)* 1.28 (0.46–3.53) 1.81 (0.95–3.46) 1.67 (1.09–2.57)+ 1.61 (1.00–2.60) 1.55 (0.54–4.47)
H/O CHD 1.57 (1.10–2.25)+ 2.13 (0.86–5.28) 2.08 (1.21–3.59)* 2.01 (1.35–3.00)* 1.31 (0.78–2.19) 2.87 (1.00–8.26)+
H/O stroke 2.49 (1.59–3.89)* 1.65 (0.38–7.20) 0.93 (0.44–1.98) 1.63 (1.11–2.41)+ 1.79 (1.10–2.93)+ 1.37 (0.50–3.78)
H/O asthma 1.31 (1.05–1.64)+ 1.58 (0.99–2.52) 1.19 (0.85–1.65) 1.13 (0.86–1.48) 1.11 (0.88–1.40) 1.36 (0.79–2.34)
H/O cancer 1.38 (1.13–1.69)* 2.56 (1.35–4.86)* 2.23 (1.34–3.70)* 1.55 (1.20–2.01)* 1.43 (1.03–2.00)+ 1.18 (0.56–2.47)
H/O COPD 2.20 (1.70–2.84)* 3.86 (1.69–8.84)* 1.87 (1.09–3.21)+ 1.87 (1.34–2.63)* 2.80 (1.92–4.07)* 1.25 (0.65–2.43)
H/O arthritis 1.86 (1.55–2.22)* 2.06 (1.32–3.23)* 1.76 (1.31–2.38)* 1.94 (1.59–2.36)* 1.64 (1.30–2.07)* 1.68 (1.08–2.60)+
H/O depression 2.58 (2.12–3.13)* 2.64 (1.38–5.06)* 1.87 (1.18–2.97)* 2.16 (1.64–2.84)* 2.14 (1.63–2.82)* 1.76 (1.05–2.97)+
H/O kidney disease 2.04 (1.38–3.02)* 3.02 (1.44–6.31)* 3.96 (2.16–7.26)* 2.50 (1.77–3.53)* 2.67 (1.76–4.03)* 2.02 (0.74–5.49)
H/O diabetes 2.31 (1.79–2.98)* 1.96 (1.20–3.21)* 2.44 (1.72–3.45)* 2.64 (2.11–3.31)* 2.27 (1.76–2.92)* 2.85 (1.67–4.87)*
Obese/overweight 1.48 (1.23–1.77)* 1.21 (0.81–1.81) 1.23 (0.94–1.60) 1.43 (1.18–1.74)* 1.45 (1.13–1.85)* 1.48 (0.88–2.48)
  1. General health was dichotomized as fair/poor (1) vs. excellent/very good/good (0). A multivariable logistic regression with quasi-binomial distribution was conducted, accounting for the complex sampling design
  2. NHPI, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander; H/O, history of; CHD, coronary heart disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Ref, reference
  3. +P value < 0.05; *P value < 0.01