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Table 2 Factor and reliability analyses (24 items)

From: Perceived changes of specific attitudes, perceptions and behaviors during the Corona pandemic and their relation to wellbeing

Intended topic Items Mean value SD Difficulty index (2.33/4 = 0.58) Corrected item—scale correlation Cronbach’s alpha
If item deleted
(alpha = .908)
Factor loading
1 2 3 4 5
  Eigenvalue       7.6 2.3 1.7 1.4 1.3
  Cronbach’s alpha       .868 .827 .800 .744 .742
  Factor 1: Nature/Silence/Contemplation
Silence c12 I consciously take more time for silence 2.15 1.17 0.54 .671 .901 .724 .382    
Mindfulness c11 I perceive nature more intensely 2.63 1.10 0.66 .632 .902 .710     
Mindfulness c10 I go outdoors much more often 2.61 1.12 0.65 .497 .904 .678     
Mindfulness c8 I come to deal more with myself again 2.44 1.06 0.61 .547 .903 .663     
Silence c13 I enjoy quiet times of reflection 2.29 1.21 0.57 .663 .901 .649 .439    
Mindfulness c9 I pay more attention to what's really important in life 2.72 1.00 0.68 .648 .902 .615   .362   
Mindfulness c7 I'm more relaxed than before 2.00 1.04 0.50 .344 .907 .579    − .302  
  Factor 2: Spirituality
Spirituality c32 I have confidence in a higher power that supports me 2.69 1.39 0.67 .514 .904   .791    
Spirituality c31 I deal more with spiritual/religious questions 1.79 1.22 0.45 .622 .902   .755    
Spirituality c20 I'm more interested in spiritual/religious issues 1.77 1.19 0.44 .649 .901   .733    
Spirituality c29 I pray/meditate more than before 1.70 1.23 0.43 .612 .902 .322 .692    
Spirituality c22 I took advantage of digital worship services 1.54 1.58 0.39 .340 .909   .643    
  Factor 3: Relationships
Connectedness c1 I perceive the relationship with my partner/family more intensely 2.72 1.00 0.68 .431 .906    .775   
Connectedness c4 I feel closer to the people in my household 2.69 1.07 0.67 .417 .906    .748   
Connectedness c3 I take more time for my family/friends 2.51 1.03 0.63 .508 .904    .694   
Connectedness c5 relationships have become important to me in which I can feel safe and at home 2.89 0.98 0.72 .571 .903    .654   
Connectedness c2 I perceive the relationships with my friends more intensely 2.34 1.04 0.59 .443 .905    .560   
Mindfulness c6 I try to be more friendly with others 2.61 0.93   .526 .904 .326   .508   
  Factor 4: Reflection on life
Meaning c24 I'm more concerned about the meaning and purpose of my life 2.29 1.21 0.57       .793  
Meaning c23 I'm more concerned about the lifetime that I have 2.23 1.24 0.56       .784  
Isolation c14 I perceive times of loneliness more intensely 2.05 1.26   .413 .906 .322    .529  
  Factor 5: Digital media usage
Connectedness c19 I use many internet offers that let me share in the world 2.29 1.20 0.57 .372 .907      .881
Connectedness c18 I am connected to friends via digital media 2.76 1.05 0.69 .345 .907      .778
Spirituality c21 I use more and more websites that inspire and stimulate me 1.91 1.20 0.48 .509 .904   .405    .637
  Deleted items
Isolation c15 I feel cut off from life 1.15 1.25         
Isolation c16 I feel restricted in my freedom 1.82 1.33         
Isolation c17 I lack social contacts 2.13 1.34         
Hope c25 I have the hope that we (‘afterwards’) as global mankind will pay more attention to each other and stick together 2.47 1.21         
Hope c26 I would like to start working to ensure that the world becomes fairer in the future 2.73 0.94         
Loss c27 I find that our society is falling apart more and more 2.54 1.01         
Loss c28 I rather fear for the future 1.78 1.13         
Loss c30 I lost my belief 0.50 0.86         
  1. Extraction method: principle component analysis (Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalization). Rotation is converged in 6 iterations; the 6 factors explain 61% of variance