Skip to main content

Table 5 Adjusted associations between sociodemographic variables, self-efficacy, self-esteem, pain, sleep, loneliness, stress, and HRQOL examined by hierarchical regression analysesa,b,c N = 696

From: Health-related quality of life is strongly associated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness, and stress in 14–15-year-old adolescents: a cross-sectional study

  Physical well-being Psychological well-being
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7
Gender (ref = boy) − 0.21* − 0.13* − 0.09* − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.27* − 0.18* − 0.09* − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.07* − 0.05
Adult members of the household (ref = both parents)
 Part-time with each parent − 0.07 − 0.05 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.03 − 0.09 − 0.06 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.02
 One parent and one stepparent − 0.06 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.00 0.00 − 0.00 − 0.06 − 0.00 0.01 − 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01
 One parent − 0.08 − 0.05 − 0.04 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.12* − 0.09* − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.04
 Other caregivers − 0.02 − 0.00 0.01 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.03 0.03 − 0.08 − 0.05 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.01
Parents’ work status (ref = both parents working)
 One parent working − 0.10* − 0.09* − 0.09* − 0.08 − 0.09* − 0.09* − 0.08 − 0.11* − 0.10* − 0.10* − 0.09* − 0.10* − 0.08* − 0.06*
 No parent working − 0.08 − 0.09* − 0.09* − 0.10* − 0.11* − 0.10* − 0.10* 0.00 − 0.01 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02
School absence (ref = 0–4 days)d
 5–10 days − 0.14* − 0.12* − 0.10* − 0.08 − 0.08 − 0.07 − 0.07 − 0.13* − 0.11* − 0.05 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.01
 > 10 days − 0.09 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.05 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.08 − 0.04 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.01 0.00
Self-efficacy   0.38* 0.26* 0.25* 0.24* 0.22* 0.21*   0.46* 0.21* 0.20* 0.19* 0.14* 0.11*
Self-esteem    0.24* 0.21* 0.19* 0.15* 0.12*    0.50* 0.46* 0.45* 0.33* 0.21*
Pain on average     − 0.13* − 0.11* − 0.10* − 0.10*     − 0.18* − 0.17* − 0.15* − 0.12*
Frequency of enough sleep (ref = always)
 Usually      − 0.12 − 0.12 − 0.11      − 0.14* − 0.13* − 0.11
 Sometimes      − 0.18* − 0.18* − 0.17*      − 0.12* − 0.11* − 0.05
 Rarely      − 0.11 − 0.11 − 0.10      − 0.09* − 0.09* − 0.03
 Never      − 0.08 − 0.08 − 0.07      − 0.08* − 0.07* − 0.02
Loneliness       − 0.11* − 0.09       − 0.32* − 0.24*
Stress        − 0.07        − 0.31*
R2 adj 0.106 0.237 0.275 0.289 0.299 0.307 0.308 0.150 0.343 0.511 0.539 0.545 0.616 0.658
  Autonomy and parent relations Social support and peers
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7
Gender (ref = boy) − 0.06 0.02 0.07 0.10* 0.10* 0.10* 0.12* − 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06
Adult members of the household (ref = both parents)
 Part-time with each parent − 0.06 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03
 One parent and one stepparent − 0.07 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.03 − 0.08 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.04 − 0.02 − 0.02
 One parent − 0.13* − 0.10* − 0.09 − 0.08 − 0.07 − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02 − 0.02
 Other caregivers − 0.11* − 0.08 − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.03 − 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02
Parents’ work status (ref = both parents working)
 One parent working − 0.06* − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.06 − 0.04 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.00 0.00
 No parent working − 0.07* − 0.08 − 0.08 − 0.08 − 0.09* − 0.09* − 0.09* 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.04
School absence (ref = 0–4 days)d
 5–10 days − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 − 0.06 − 0.05 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.01 0.00 0.00
 > 10 days  − 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 − 0.05 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.02 0.02 0.02
Self-efficacy   0.36* 0.21* 0.20* 0.20* 0.17* 0.14*   0.31* 0.19* 0.19* 0.17* 0.10 0.09
Self-esteem    0.31* 0.27* 0.26* 0.19* 0.06    0.26* 0.25* 0.25* 0.06 0.03
Pain on average     − 0.16* − 0.15* − 0.13* − 0.11*     − 0.03 − 0.03 0.02 0.02
Frequency of enough sleep (ref = always)
 Usually      − 0.05 − 0.04 − 0.01      − 0.13 − 0.12 − 0.11
 Sometimes      − 0.08 − 0.08 − 0.01      − 0.10 − 0.08 − 0.07
 Rarely      − 0.06 − 0.06 0.00      − 0.05 − 0.07 − 0.05
 Never      − 0.05 − 0.04 0.01      − 0.08 − 0.06 − 0.04
Loneliness       − 0.18* − 0.09       − 0.48* − 0.45*
Stress        − 0.34*        − 0.10
R2 adj 0.049 0.170 0.233 0.255 0.254 0.276 0.324 0.010 0.101 0.144 0.144 0.146 0.306 0.309
  School environment
M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7
Gender (ref = boy) − 0.14* − 0.04 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.06
Adult members of the household (ref = both parents)
 Part-time with each parent − 0.03 − 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02
 One parent and one stepparent − 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.03
 One parent − 0.05 − 0.02 − 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03
 Other caregivers − 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.05
Parents’ work status (ref = both parents working)
 One parent working − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.07 − 0.06 − 0.05
 No parent working − 0.05 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.06 − 0.07 − 0.07 − 0.07
School absence (ref = 0–4 days)d
 5–10 days − 0.12* − 0.10* − 0.06 − 0.04 − 0.03 − 0.03 − 0.02
 > 10 days − 0.06 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.01 − 0.00 0.01
Self-efficacy   0.47* 0.30* 0.30* 0.28* 0.26* 0.24*
Self-esteem    0.34* 0.30* 0.27* 0.23* 0.13*
Pain on average     − 0.18* − 0.16* − 0.15* − 0.13*
Frequency of enough sleep (ref = always)
 Usually      − 0.10 − 0.09 − 0.07
 Sometimes      − 0.16* − 0.16* − 0.11
 Rarely      − 0.13* − 0.14* − 0.09
 Never      − 0.11* − 0.10* − 0.06
Loneliness       − 0.11* − 0.04
Stress        − 0.26*
R2 adj 0.046 0.250 0.327 0.355 0.369 0.377 0.404
  1. aHierarchical regression analyses were performed separately for each of the five KIDSCREEN subscales as dependent variables.
  2. bThe independent variables were entered into the regression in seven steps, leading to seven linear regression models (M1–M7).
  3. ͨThe strength of the associations is described in terms of standardized regression coefficients and adjusted R2
  4. ͩThe variable was recoded into three categories: “0–4 days” (none, 1–4 days), “5–10 days” (5–7 days, 8–10 days), or “ > 10 days”.
  5. *P ≤ 0.01