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Table 3 Descriptive characteristics for HRQOL, self-efficacy, self-esteem, pain, sleep, loneliness, and stress (N = 696)

From: Health-related quality of life is strongly associated with self-efficacy, self-esteem, loneliness, and stress in 14–15-year-old adolescents: a cross-sectional study

Variable Total (n = 696) Boys (n = 296) Girls (n = 400) P value
Physical well-being, mean (SD)a,b 47.1 (9.3) 49.6 (9.6) 45.2 (8.6) < 0.001*
Psychological well-being, mean (SD)a,b 46.6 (8.4) 49.5 (8.1) 44.4 (8.0) < 0.001*
Autonomy and parent relations, mean (SD)a,b 52.6 (8.7) 53.4 (9.1) 51.9 (8.5) 0.027
Social support and peers, mean (SD)a,b 48.4 (8.5) 49.0 (8.5) 48.0 (8.4) 0.130
School environment, mean (SD)a,b 48.0 (8.6) 49.6 (9.1) 46.8 (7.9) < 0.001*
Self-efficacy, mean (SD)c 3.1 (0.4) 3.2 (0.4) 3.0 (0.4) < 0.001*
Self-esteem, mean (SD)d 3.1 (0.7) 3.3 (0.6) 2.9 (0.7) < 0.001*
Having pain today, N (%)     < 0.001*
 Yes 200 (28.7) 56 (18.9) 144 (36.0)  
 No 496 (71.3) 240 (81.1) 256 (64)  
Pain on average, mean (SD)e 2.2 (1.9) 1.6 (1.7) 2.6 (1.9) < 0.001*
Pain interference with activity, median (min, max)f, g 1.3 (0.0, 10.0) 1.0 (0.0, 10.0) 1.3 (0.0, 9.7) 0.372
Pain interference with emotions, median (min, max)f, g 1.2 (0.0, 9.7) 0.7 (0.0, 9.2) 1.2 (0.0, 9.7) < 0.001*
Pain duration, N (%)f, h     0.069
 Pain ≤ 3 months 335 (63.6) 133 (68.6) 202 (60.3)  
 Pain > 3 months 192 (36.4) 61 (31.4) 131 (39.3)  
Pain frequency, N (%)f, i     0.146
 Seldom 221 (41.9) 92 (47.4) 129 (38.7)  
 Sometimes 123 (23.2) 42 (21.6) 81 (24.3)  
 Often 183 (34.7) 60 (30.9) 123 (36.9)  
OTC analgesic intake during the last 4 weeks, N (%)     < 0.001*
 Yes 342 (49.2) 103 (34.8) 239 (59.9)  
 No 353 (50.8) 193 (65.2) 160 (40.1)  
Frequency of OTC analgesic intake, N (%)j     0.043
 Daily 20 (5.8) 10 (9.7) 10 (4.2)  
 Every week, but not daily 52 (15.2) 10 (9.7) 42 (17.6)  
 Less often than every week 243 (71.1) 72 (69.9) 171 (71.5)  
 No intake during the last 4 weeks 27 (7.9) 11 (10.7) 16 (6.7)  
Problems with sleepiness, N (%)     < 0.001*
 No problem at all 280 (40.3) 151 (51.0) 129 (32.3)  
 A slight problem 311 (44.7) 120 (40.5) 191 (47.9)  
 More than a slight problem 68 (9.8) 17 (5.7) 51 (12.8)  
 A big problem 26 (3.7) 7 (2.4) 19 (4.8)  
 A very big problem 10 (1.4) 1 (0.3) 9 (2.3)  
Frequency of enough sleep, N (%)     0.002*
 Always 59 (8.5) 34 (11.5) 25 (3.6)  
 Usually 387 (55.7) 175 (59.1) 212 (53.1)  
 Sometimes 177 (25.5) 69 (23.3) 108 (27.1)  
 Rarely 63 (9.1) 15 (5.1) 48 (6.9)  
 Never 9 (1.3) 3 (1.0) 6 (1.5)  
Loneliness, median (min, max)k 13.0 (8.0, 32.0) 12.0 (8.0, 27.0) 13.0 (8.0, 32.0) < 0.001*
Stress, mean (SD)l 0.29 (0.15) 0.24 (0.13) 0.33 (0.16) < 0.001*
  1. Continuous variables analyzed using independent t-test and Mann–Whitney U test. Categorical variables analyzed using χ2-test
  2. HRQOL, health-related quality of life; OTC, over-the-counter; SD, standard deviation
  3. aKIDSCREEN subscales
  4. bRasch scores were computed for each subscale and transformed into t-values with a mean of 50 and an SD of 10. Higher values indicate higher levels of HRQOL
  5. cRange 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-efficacy
  6. dRange 1–4, where higher values indicate higher levels of self-esteem
  7. eRange 0–10, where 10 indicates pain as bad as you can imagine
  8. fN = 527
  9. gRange 0–10, where 10 indicates complete interference of pain
  10. hThe variable was dichotomized as “Pain ≤ 3 months” (only once, < 1 month, 1–3 months) or “Pain > 3 months” (> 3 months, > 6 months, > 12 months)
  11. iThe variable was recoded into three categories: “seldom” (< once/month, once/month), “sometimes” (2–3 times/month, once/week), or “often” (several times/week, every day)
  12. jN = 342
  13. kRange 8–32, where higher values indicate higher levels of loneliness
  14. lRange 0–1, where higher values indicate higher levels of stress
  15. *P ≤ 0.01