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Table 4 Comparison of observed and DIF-adjusted mean Parental Stress scores and mean Lack of Parental Satisfaction scores in groups affected by differential item functioning in the total sample

From: The Parental Stress Scale revisited: Rasch-based construct validity for Danish parents of children 2–18 years old with and without behavioral problems

DIF-groups (N) Observed scores Adjusted scores  
Mean SE Mean SE Biasa
Parental stress subscalea
Sampleb
  Ordinary (571) 4.07 .08 4.45 .08 −.38
  Behavior (234) 5.14 .14 4.77 .14 .37
Parent educationc
  Secondary or less (203) 4.90 .15 4.52 .15 .38
  Tertiary (602) 4.21 .08 4.55 .08 −.34
Lack of parental satisfaction subscale
Sampled
  Ordinary (571) .69 .04 .69 .04 .00
  Behavior (234) .92 .09 .75 .08 .17
  1. SE Standard error
  2. aAs the Parental Stress subscale is affected by DIF from more than once source, any reference group within a DIF-variable is adjusted to account for the other sources of DIF, and thus all groups are biased if not adjusted
  3. bDifferences in observed mean scores (χ2 (1) = 45.4, p < .001)., and adjusted mean scores (χ2 (1) = 4.1, p = .042)
  4. cDifferences in observed mean scores (χ2 (1) = 15.7, p < .001), and adjusted mean scores (χ2 (1) = 0.0, p = .849)
  5. dDifferences in observed mean scores (χ2 (1) = 6.2, p = .01), and adjusted mean scores (χ2 (1) = 0.6, p = .442)