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Table 6 Factors associated with good-QOL in domain of MCS in univariate and multivariate analyses

From: Factors associated with quality of life among chronic kidney disease patients in Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Factors OR 95%CI p-value ORadj 95%CI p-value
Sex
 Male 1.00      
 Female 0.63 0.40–1.02 0.061    
Age (year)
  < 31 1.19 0.58–2.44 0.625    
 31–50 1.92 1.18–3.13 0.009a    
  > 50 1.00      
Education
 Illiterate 1.00      
 Primary 0.44 0.20–0.94 0.036a    
 Secondary 1.40 0.80–2.45 0.228    
 Tertiary 0.97 0.45–2.07 0.945    
Occupation
 Employed/retired 1.00      
 Unemployed 2.03 1.00–4.12 0.049a    
Annual household income (NRsb)
 No income 1.00      
  < 1,00,000 0.82 0.46–1.46 0.505    
  ≥ 1,00,000 0.72 0.38–1.35 0.310    
Marital status
 Single 1.10 0.44–2.73 0.824    
 Married 0.87 0.44–1.71 0.697    
 Widow/ Divorced 1.00      
Ethnicity
 Brahmin 1.00      
 Chhetri 0.54 0.27–1.07 0.080    
 Madheshi 0.33 0.15–0.73 0.006a    
 Janjati 0.35 0.19–0.65 0.001a    
 Dalit 0.36 0.13–0.97 0.045a    
Religion
 Hindu 6.17 1.87–20.28 0.003a    
 Buddhist 1.33 0.28–6.26 0.716    
 Christian 1.00      
Place of residence
 Village 1.00    1.00   
 City 1.94 1.23–3.06 0.004a 1.98 1.05–3.72 0.033a
Duration of illness (years)
  < 1 2.93 1.84–4.69 < 0.001a    
  ≥ 1 1.00      
Stages of CKD
 Stage I-IV 4.42 2.74–7.13 < 0.001a 28.33 10.47–76.62 < 0.001a
 Stage V 1.00    1.00   
Taking hemodialysis
 Yes 1.00    1.00   
 No 3.73 2.33–5.97 < 0.001a 3.70 1.83–7.51 < 0.001a
Duration of hemodialysis (months)
  < 10 1.00      
 10–12 2.00 0.84–4.73 0.114    
  > 12 0.00 0.00 0.995    
History of kidney transplantation
 Yes 0.57 0.16–1.99 0.385    
 No 1.00      
Taking to a hospital
 Family members 1.00      
 Others (myself)/friends 3.00 1.74–5.19 < 0.001a    
Support for medical expenses
 Family members 1.00      
 Myself/friends/others 0.70 0.35–1.42 0.332    
Having health insurance
 Yes 2.82 1.65–4.82 < 0.001a 5.34 2.47–11.54 < 0.001a
 No 1.00    1.00   
Frequency to see a doctor per month
 Irregular 3.73 2.33–5.97 < 0.001a    
 8–12 1.00      
Distance of hospital (km)
  < 10 1.00      
 10–30 3.23 1.22–8.51 0.018a    
  > 30 1.97 0.85–4.55 0.109    
Medical expenses per visit (NRsb)
  < 1001 1.00    1.00   
 1001-5000 1.02 0.59–1.76 0.919 0.43 0.17–1.03 0.061
  > 5000 2.01 1.15–3.52 0.014a 0.23 0.08–0.62 0.004a
Facing problem for medical expenses
 Yes 1.00    1.00   
 No 2.80 1.76–4.48 < 0.001a 2.66 1.47–4.81 < 0.001a
Hypertension
 Yes 1.00      
 No 1.18 0.53–2.65 0.675    
Diabetes mellitus
 Yes 1.00      
 No 2.22 1.15–4.29 0.017a    
Heart disease
 Yes 1.00      
 No 3.54 1.23–10.14 0.018a    
  1. a Significant level at α = 0.05; bNRs Nepali rupees