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Table 5 Factors associated with good-QOL in domain of PCS in univariate and multivariate analyses

From: Factors associated with quality of life among chronic kidney disease patients in Nepal: a cross-sectional study

Factors OR 95%CI p-value ORAdj 95%CI p-value
Sex
 Male 1.00      
 Female 1.10 0.75–1.60 0.622    
Age (year)
  < 31 2.52 1.38–4.59 0.002a 1.68 0.71–3.99 0.233
 31–50 2.68 1.74–4.14 < 0.001a 2.93 1.48–5.76 0.002a
  > 50 1.00    1.00   
Education
 Illiterate 1.00    1.00   
 Primary 1.11 0.64–1.92 0.701 1.56 0.66–3.67 0.304
 Secondary 2.94 1.79–4.82 < 0.001a 1.91 0.81–4.51 0.136
 Tertiary 2.61 1.36–4.98 0.004a 4.34 1.42–13.27 0.010a
Occupation
 Employed and retired 1.00      
 Unemployed 1.81 1.09–3.01 0.020a    
Annual household income (NRsb)
 No income 1.00      
  < 1,00,000 1.37 0.83–2.25 0.212    
  ≥ 1,00,000 1.49 0.88–2.55 0.136    
Marital status
 Single 4.29 1.86–9.90 0.001a    
 Married 3.50 1.86–6.59 < 0.001a    
 Widow/Divorced 1.00      
Ethnicity
 Brahmin 1.00      
 Chhetri 1.03 0.54–1.97 0.912    
 Madheshi 0.35 0.18–0.69 0.002a    
 Janjati 0.80 0.46–1.38 0.428    
 Dalit 0.44 0.19–1.00 0.052    
Religion
 Hindu 7.44 3.51–15.75 <  0.001a    
 Buddhist 4.54 1.85–11.09 0.001a    
 Christian 1.00      
Place of residence
 Village 1.00      
 City 1.45 0.98–2.15 0.059    
Duration of illness (years)
  < 1 4.01 2.67–6.02 < 0.001a    
  ≥ 1 1.00      
Stages of CKD
 Stage I-IV 39.80 15.80–100.21 < 0.001a 21.24 2.97–151.77 0.002a
 Stage V 1.00    1.00   
Taking hemodialysis
 Yes 1.00    1.00   
 No 38.94 17.55–86.41 < 0.001a 16.09 1.81–142.90 0.013a
Duration of hemodialysis (months)
  < 10 2.25 1.31–3.87 0.003a    
 10–12 8.25 3.37–20.15 < 0.001a    
  > 12 1.00      
History of kidney transplantation
 Yes 8.84 2.03–38.44 0.004a    
 No 1.00      
Taking to hospital
 Family members 1.00    1.00   
 Themselves 5.20 2.86–9.44 < 0.001a 7.98 3.65–17.40 < 0.001a
Support for medical expenses
 Family members 1.00      
 Themselves 1.02 0.59–1.75 0.938    
Having health insurance
 Yes 2.52 1.46–4.35 0.001a 3.99 1.87–8.52 < 0.001a
 No 1.00    1.00   
Frequency to see a doctor per month
 Irregular 38.94 17.55–86.41 < 0.001a    
 8–12 1.00      
Distance of hospital (km)
  < 10 1.00      
 10–30 3.08 1.43–6.64 0.004a    
  > 30 1.99 1.11–3.56 0.021a    
Medical expenses per visit (NRsb)
  < 1001 1.00    1.00   
 1001-5000 1.24 0.80–1.90 0.329 0.44 0.22–0.87 0.019a
  > 5000 13.20 6.44–27.01 < 0.001a 0.19 0.03–1.09 0.063
Facing problem for medical expenses
 Yes 1.00    1.00   
 No 2.54 1.65–3.90 < 0.001a 2.19 1.01–4.74 0.045a
Hypertension
 Yes 1.00      
 No 1.21 0.59–2.48 0.599    
Diabetes mellitus
 Yes 1.00      
 No 2.38 1.47–3.85 < 0.001a    
Heart disease
 Yes 1.00      
 No 4.29 2.16–8.54 < 0.001a    
  1. a Significant level at α = 0.05; bNRs Nepali rupees