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Table 3 Univariate linear regression analysis of correlates of HRQoL among adults receiving cART in Coastal Kenya

From: Correlates of health-related quality of life among adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in coastal Kenya

Independent variables   β-coefficient (95% CI) of HRQoL domains and overall scale as dependent variables
N Physical wellbeing domain Emotional wellbeing domain Functional Global wellbeing domain Social wellbeing domain Cognitive function domain Overall HRQoL
Age 450 −0.03 (− 0.12, 0.06) 0.11** (0.03, 0.19) 0.10*** (0.03, 0.17) 0.07** (0.01, 0.13) 0.01 (−0.02, 0.03) 0.27** (0.03, 0.50)
Sex 450       
 Female   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Male   3.69*** (1.62, 5.77) 1.33* (−0.59,3.24) 1.17* (− 0.43, 2.78) 1.87** (0.46, 3.29) 0.49* (− 0.15, 1.14) 8.56*** (3.01, 14.10)
Marital status 450       
 Married/cohabiting   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Separated/divorced/widowed   −.165* (−3.47, 0.17) −2.32** (− 3.98, − 0.67) −1.87** (− 3.25, − 0.48) −1.70** (− 2.93, − 0.48) − 0.25 (− 0.81, 0.32) −7.79*** (− 12.60, − 2.98)
 Never married   0.18 (− 2.53, 2.90) − 3.07** (− 5.54, − 0.61) −2.84** (− 4.91, − 0.77) − 3.06** (− 4.88, − 1.24) − 0.66* (− 1.50, 0.18) −9.45** (− 16.63, − 2.27)
Education 450       
 Tertiary   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Secondary   −2.88 (− 7.25, 1.50) − 2.02 (−6.09, 2.06) 0.68 (− 2.74, 4.10) − 0.11 (− 3.13, 2.92) 0.26 (− 1.12, 1.63) − 4.06 (− 15.91, 7.79)
 Primary   −4.17** (−8.13, − 0.21) − 1.36 (− 5.04, 2.33) 1.09 (− 2.00, 4.19) 0.65 (− 2.09, 3.39) 0.49 (− 0.75, 1.74) − 3.30** (− 14.02, 7.42)
 None   −7.00** (− 11.12, − 2.89) −2.66* (− 6.49, 1.17) 0.38 (− 2.83, 3.59) 0.02 (− 2.83, 2.87) 0.01 (− 1.29, 1.29) − 9.26* (− 20.40, 1.88)
Employment 450       
 Formally employed   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Self-employed   −1.25 (− 4.22, 1.72) − 0.70 (− 3.45, 2.04) − 0.04 (− 2.33, 2.26) 0.32 (− 1.70, 2.35) 0.26 (− 0.67, 1.19) −1.41 (− 9.38, 6.56)
 Other forms of employment   − 0.10 (− 6.04, 5.84) 1.42 (− 4.07, 6.92) 0.52 (− 4.07, 5.11) 4.96** (0.91, 9.01) 0.95 (− 0.90, 2.80) 7.75 (− 8.20, 23.71)
 Unemployed   −3.35** (− 6.05, − 0.66) − 0.44 (− 2.94, 2.05) −1.33 (− 3.41, 0.75) 0.01 (− 1.83, 1.84) − 0.04 (− 0.88, 0.80) − 5.16* (− 12.39, 2.08)
Currently living with 450       
 Family   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Relative/friend   −1.22 (−7.02, 4.58) −.191 (− 5.48, 5.10) 0.80 (−3.65, 5.24) − 1.79 (− 5.71, 2.13) − 0.90 (− 2.69, 0.88) −3.31 (− 18.77, 12.15)
 Alone   0.43 (− 1.94, 2.80) −1.99* (− 4.15, 0.18) −1.02 (− 2.83, 0.80) −1.66** (− 3.26, − 0.05) − 0.66** (− 1.39, 0.07) − 4.90* (− 11.22, 1.43)
 Socioeconomic asset index 450 0.79** (0.17, 1.41) 0.10 (− 0.47, 0.67) 0.46* (− 0.02, 0.94) 0.55** (0.13, 0.98) 0.07 (− 0.13, 0.26) 1.96** (0.31, 3.62)
Currently smoking 449       
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   −1.34 (− 4.20, 1.53) − 0.67 (−3.30, 1.96) − 0.48 (− 2.68, 1.73) − 0.23 (− 2.18, 1.73) − 0.27 (− 1.15, 0.61) −2.98 (− 10.65, 4.69)
Current khat use 450       
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   3.55* (−0.57, 7.67) 3.16* (− 0.62, 6.93) 1.61 (−1.56, 4.78) 0.47 (−2.34, 3.28) − 0.03 (− 1.31, 1.24) 8.75 (− 2.27, 19.78)
Current alcohol use 449       
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   1.59 (−1.10, 4.27) −0.11 (− 2.58, 2.36) 0.54 (− 1.52, 2.61) − 0.40 (− 2.23, 1.43) 0.05 (− 0.78, 0.88) 1.68 (− 5.52, 8.87)
Disclosure 450       
 Yes   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No   −2.61* (−6.19, 0.97) −6.44*** (−9.67, −3.21) −4.06*** (− 6.79, −1.33) −5.04*** (− 7.43, − 2.64) −0.36 (− 1.46, 0.75) −18.50*** (− 27.94, − 9.06)
Clinic accessible 448       
 Yes   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No   −3.39** (−5.85, −0.94) − 3.05** (− 5.30, − 0.80) −3.09*** (−4.96, −1.21) − 2.20** (− 3.86, − 0.53) −1.43*** (− 2.18, − 0.67) −13.15*** (− 19.66, − 6.64)
Satisfaction with current care 449       
 Satisfied   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Not satisfied   −1.48 (− 5.71, 2.76) −0.91 (−4.80, 2.97) − 4.21** (−7.44, − 0.98) −4.19*** (− 7.05, − 1.33) − 0.17 (− 1.49, 1.14) −10.97* (− 22.27, 0.32)
Any current opportunistic infection 450       
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   −3.30*** (−5.47, −1.12) −4.01*** (− 5.99, −2.03) − 1.37* (− 3.06, 0.31) −0.25 (− 1.74, 1.24) − 0.27 (− 0.95, 0.41) −9.20*** (− 15.01, − 3.39)
Any current chronic illness 450       
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   −2.45* (−5.53, 0.66) −0.77 (− 3.62, 2.06) −0.46 (− 2.84, 1.92) −1.23 (− 3.34, 0.87) − 0.26 (− 1.22, 0.70) −5.17 (− 13.45, 3.11)
Depressive symptom 450       
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   − 12.85*** (− 15.02, − 10.69) −12.21*** (− 14.17, − 10.25) −6.82*** (− 8.61, − 5.03) − 2.66*** (−4.32, − 1.00) − 3.20*** (− 3.90, − 2.49) −37.75*** (− 43.35, − 32.15)
HIV stigma 450 − 0.37*** (− 0.47, − 0.26) − 0.54*** (− 0.62, − 0.45) −0.20*** (− 0.28, − 0.11) −0.22*** (− 0.29, − 0.15) −0.11*** (− 0.14, − 0.07) −1.42*** (− 1.69, − 1.16)
 Duration since HIV diagnosis 450 − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.01) 0.01* (− 0.01, 0.03) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.01) −0.01 (− 0.01, 0.01) −0.01 (− 0.01, 0.01) − 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.04)
 Duration on cART 450 0.01 (−.01, 0.02) 0.02** (0.01, 0.04) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.01 (− 0.01, 0.01) −0.01 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.02 (− 0.02, 0.07)
cART regimen 446       
 First line   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Second line   −1.14 (− 5.19, 2.90) − 4.24** (− 7.93, − 0.55) 1.01 (− 2.08, 4.11) 0.98 (− 1.78, 3.73) − 0.72 (− 1.97, 0.53) −4.11 (− 14.93, 6.71)
ART adherence 450       
 High   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Medium/ Low   −4.92*** (− 8.15, −1.68) − 5.02*** (−7.97, − 2.06) −1.66* (− 4.17, 0.84) 0.85 (− 1.37, 3.07) −1.40*** (− 2.41, −0.40) −12.15*** (− 20.81, − 3.48)
Viral Load 305       
 ≤1000 copies   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 > 1000 copies   −0.15 (− 3.12, 2.83) −1.65 (−4.39, 1.09) − 2.18* (− 4.57, 0.21) 0.48 (− 1.66, 2.63) −0.74* (− 1.71, 0.23) −4.24 (− 12.29, 3.81)
WHO staging 445       
 Stage 1   Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Stage 2   −0.83 (−4.80, 3.13) −1.24 (− 4.87, 2.39) −2.37* (− 5.40, 0.65) 0.90 (− 1.80, 3.60) 0.62 (− 0.60, 1.84) − 2.92 (− 13.51, 7.67)
 Stage 3   4.17 (− 6.38, 14.67) 5.08 (− 4.54, 14.70) 3.61 (− 4.40, 11.62) 4.40 (− 2.74, 11.55) 0.87 (− 2.37, 4.10) 18.13 (−9.92, 46.17)
 Stage 4   2.17 (−8.34, 12.67) 5.41 (− 4.20, 15.03) 1.28 (− 6.73, 9.29) 0.07 (−7.08, 7.22) − 2.13 (− 5.37, 1.10) 6.79 (− 21.25, 34.84)
Physician empathy 450 0.37** (0.11, 0.62) 0.31** (0.07, 0.54) 0.73*** (0.54, 0.91) 0.68*** (0.52, 0.84) 0.15*** (0.07, 0.23) 2.23*** (1.58, 2.89)
 BMI 446 0.29*** (0.11, 0.46) 0.20** (0.04, 0.36) 0.23*** (0.10, 0.37) 0.04 (−0.08, 0.17) 0.04 (−0.02, 0.09) 0.80*** (0.33, 1.27)
  1. HRQoL health-related quality of life, cART combination antiretroviral therapy, BMI body mass index
  2. *p < 0.20
  3. **p < 0.05
  4. ***p < 0.01