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Table 1 Study characteristics of included articles measuring HRQL in general injury populations

From: A systematic review of studies measuring health-related quality of life of general injury populations: update 2010–2018

Author, year, country Study population and design HRQL instrument Follow up time points Predictors of HRQL/Disability Outcomes
Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, 2015 [23], Iran Hospitalised trauma patients (15-65y) (N = 400); Hospital; Prospective cohort study WHODAS II 1 month
3 months
Predictors disability: age, length of hospital stay, injury to extremities Disability:
- 1 month mean: 30.3 (9.2)
- 3 months mean: 18.8 (8.3)
- Activity limitation: 11.3 (15.8)
- Participation: 16.9 (20.2)
Aitken, 2012 [24], Australia Adult (≥18) patients with acute trauma (N = 212); Hospital; Prospective multicentre study SF-36 Hospital discharge (92%)
3 months (60%)
6 months (59%)
PCS: age, body region containing most severe injury, perceived consequences of injury;
MCS: age, gender, perceived ability to control environment predicted outcome
Slight improvement in HRQL from 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge, but not back at pre-injury level
Aitken, 2014 [25], Australia Trauma intensive care patients (adults) from one tertiary referral hospital admitted for acute injury (N = 123); Prospective cohort study SF-36
Psychological status: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the PTSD Civilian Checklist
1 month (76%)
6 months (72%)
Not identified HRQL outcome:
- 1 months: PCS: 32.7 (10.4); MCS: 40.6 (15.7)
- 6 months: PCS: 40.9 (13.2); MCS: 42.6 (14.0)
Scores significantly below Australian norms both 1 and 6 months post-discharge
Aitken, 2016 [26], Australia Trauma intensive care patients (adults) from one tertiary referral hospital admitted for injury (N = 123); Prospective cohort study SF-36
Psychological status: Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the PTSD Civilian Checklist
1 month (76%)
6 months (72%)
12 months (68%)
24 months (56%)
Non-modifiable factors linked with physical function: Optimistic perception of illness, greater self-efficacy, hospital length of stay, injury insurance HRQL outcome:
- 1 month: PCS: 32.7 (10.4); MCS: 40.6 (15.7)
- 6 months: PCS: 40.9 (13.2); MCS: 42.6 (14.0)
- 12 months: PCS: 42.8 (11.7); MCS: 42.4 (13.8)
- 24 months: PCS: 43.7 (12.3); MCS: 44.6 (12.5)
Averages remained below Australian norms at 24 months
Davie, 2018 [27], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study WHODAS II 3 months
12 months
24 months (65% with complete data)
Comorbidity Percentage disabled:
-3 months: No comorbidities: 37.2%
1 comorbidity: 39.8%
Multimorbidity: 51.9%
- 12 months: No comorbidities: 10.6%
1 comorbidity: 11.4%
Multimorbidity: 27.1%
- 24 months: No comorbidities: 8.9%
1 comorbidities: 10.8%
Multimorbidity: 24.6%
Derrett, 2011 [14], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D + cognition;
WHODAS II 12-item
3 months (59%) Not identified (preliminary analysis only) Worse HRQL and increased disability compared to pre-injury status
Derrett, 2012 [28], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study WHODAS II 3 months (96%) (informed on pre-injury status and post injury status in one interview) Associated with disability: pre-injury disability, obesity, higher injury severity (NISS > 3), female, ≥2 chronic conditions before injury, perceiving a threat of disability, lower extremity fracture Non-hospitalised: disability experienced by 39% 3 months after injury
Hospitalised: Phase disability more prevalent
Derrett, 2013 [29], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study WHODAS II 24 months (76%) Post-injury disability:
- Hospitalised: WHODAS ≥ 10, ≥2 chronic conditions pre-injury, not being optimistic pre-injury, BMI ≥ 30, smoking, perceived threat of long term disability, trouble accessing health care, head/neck superficial injury, lower extremity open wound
- Non-hospitalised: WHODAS ≥ 10, ≥2 chronic conditions pre-injury, depressive type episode pre-injury, BMI ≥ 30, smoking, intentional injury, trouble accessing health care, intracranial injury, spine sprain/dislocation
Disability at 24 months:
- Hospitalised: 13.1%
- Non-hospitalised: 13.0%
- Māori: 19%
- Pacific participants: 15%
Harcombe, 2015 [30], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D 3 months
12 months
24 months (25–28% missing at least 1 response)
Not identified Attain pre-injury status:
- Hospitalised:
3 months: 20%
12 months: 28%
24 months: 34%
- Non-hospitalised:
3 months: 30%
12 months: 35%
24 months: 36%
Langley, 2013 [31], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D + cognition 3 months
12 months (80%)
Preinjury EQ-5D status, female, age 45–64, inadequate household income, preinjury disability, 2 or more prior chronic illnesses, smoking regularly, dislocation/sprains to spine or upper extremities, having relatively severe injury Continued adverse outcomes (pain/discomfort) 12 months after injury
Maclennan, 2013 [32], New Zealand Individuals of Māori ethnicity from ACC entitlement claims register (18-64y) (N = 566); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D + cognition;
WHODAS II 12-item
3 months (59%) Not identified HRQL:
- Walking difficulties: +/− half cohort
- Pain/discomfort: 2/3 of cohort
- Psychological distress: > 1/2 cohort
- Disability: 49%
- Satisfied with life: majority
- Consider themselves in good/excellent health: majority
Maclennan, 2014 [33], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study WHODAS II & EQ-5D + cognition 3 months
12 months (80%)
Not identified Pre-injury:
- Non-Māori: > 90% good health
- Māori: > 90% good health
12 months:
- Non-Māori: problems increased 4–40%
- Māori: problems increased 5–45%
Mauiliu, 2013 [34], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D
WHODAS II
3 months (59%) Less likely to have problems with disability & HRQL: Pacific people Pacific people less likely to have:
- Disability: no/lesser problems
- Self-care: no problems
- Anxiety/depression: no problems
Wilson, 2013 [35], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D + cognition 12 months (78%) Sex, injury severity, hospitalisation status Mean QALYs lost first year after injury:
- Male: 0.21 QALY
- Female: 0.24 QALY
- Hospitalised: 0.25 QALY
- Non-hospitalised: 0.21 QALY
Wyeth, 2017 [36], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study WHODAS II 3 months
24 months (66%)
Disability at 24 months: ≥2 chronic conditions pre-injury, trouble accessing healthcare services after injury; hospitalisation for injury, inadequate pre-injury household income Percent disability:
- Pre-injury: 9%
- 24 months: 19%
- Age 30–49: 23% (highest proportion)
Wyeth, 2018 [37], New Zealand Individuals (18-64y) from ACC entitlement claims register (N = 2856); Prospective cohort study WHODAS 24 months (80% non-Māori; 66% Māori) Māori: not working for pay before injury, experiencing disability before injury, trouble accessing healthcare services for injury
Non-Māori: inadequate household income prior to injury, less than secondary school qualifications, not working for pay, disability prior to injury, ≥2 chronic conditions, BMI ≥ 30
RR of disability 24 months after injury:
Māori:
- Hospitalised, non-working: 2.7 (1.4, 4.9)
- Pre-injury disabled: 3.1 (1.6, 5.8)
- Difficulties accessing health care: 2.6 (1.3, 5.2)
Non-Māori:
- Hospitalised, inadequate household income: 2.4 (1.4, 4.1)
- Less than secondary school qualification: 2.0 (1.1, 3.8)
- Not working for pay before injury: 2.8 (1.5, 5.1)
- Disability before injury: 3.0 (1.7, 5.2)
- ≥ 2 chronic conditions: 3.5 (2.0, 6.4)
- BMI ≥ 30: 2.4 (1.3, 4.4.)
Dhungel, 2015 [38], US Adult (18+) trauma population divided in groups of normal weight, overweight, obese and morbidly obese (N = 235); Trauma centre; Prospective cohort study FIM Admission Hospital discharge
6 months (79%)
Not defined Functional Status:
- Admission: Non-obese: 38.2 (13.9)
Overweight: 40.0 (11.1)
Obese: 38.3 (15.1)
Morbidly obese: 41.6 (13.9)
- Discharge: Non-obese: 62.4 (7.9)
Overweight: 60.0 (8.4)
Obese: 56.7 (13.0)
Morbidly obese: 58.7 (9.3)
- Follow-up: Non-obese: 71.1 (2.1)
Overweight: 70.6 (3.4)
Obese: 70.3 (3.8)
Morbidly obese: 69.8 (5.4)
Dinh, 2016 [39], Australia Adult (≥16) trauma patients (N = 349); Major trauma centre; Prospective cohort study EQ-5D and SF-12 Baseline
3 months
6 months (51%)
Physical health: lower limb injuries; Mental health: mechanism of injury, past mental health; RTW: increasing ISS, upper limb injuries HRQL: No significant change in PCS and MCS between 3 and 6 months
Gabbe, 2013 [40], Australia Adult major trauma patients (N = 662); Level 1 trauma centre; Prospective cohort study SF-12
GOSE
6 months
12 months
18 months
24 months (93% followed up for at least 1 time point)
Not defined - 6-12 months: Functional recovery, RTW, physical health improved
- > 12 months: little change
- < 18 months: mental health score decreased
- 18-24 months: mental health score improved
Gabbe, 2016 [41], Australia Adult major trauma survivors (N = 8844); Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR); Prospective cohort study GOS
GOSE
6 months
12 months
24 months (74% for all follow-up points)
Female, older patients, pre-existing conditions, spinal cord injured and multi-trauma patients involving head injury, intentional/low-fall events, compensable patients, greater socioeconomic disadvantage, pre-existing drug/alcohol/mental health conditions Good recovery:
- 6 months: Male: 33.2%; Female: 27.2%
- 12 months: Male: 37.3%; Female: 28.8%
- 24 months: Male: 39.7%; Female: 31.1%
Gabbe, 2017 [42], Australia Hospitalised adult major trauma patients (ISS ≥ 12) (N = 2424); Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D-3 L 6 months (84%)
12 months (85%)
24 months (84%)
36 months (74%)
Age, compensable status, level of education, nature of injuries, gender, preinjury employment, level of socioeconomic disadvantage HRQL:- 6 months: 0.67 (0.31)
- 12 months: 0.68 (0.32)
- 24 months: 0.71 (0.31)
- 36 months: 0.70 (0.32)
Gross, 2011 [43], Switzerland Patients treated primarily at a university trauma centre after blunt polytrauma (N = 178); University hospital ICU; Prospective cohort study EQ-5D
SF-36
MFA
TOP
24 months (57%) Long term pain associated with HRQL-scores Mean (SD) HRQL:
EQ-5D pain:
- Pre-injury: 1.1 (0.4)
- Post-injury: 1.7 (0.6)
SF-36 pain:
- Pre-injury: 94.3 (14.1)
- Post injury: 65.0 (29.5)
MFA pain:
- Pre-injury: 1.4 (0.7)
- Post-injury: 2.4 (1.2)
TOP total pain:
- Pre-injury: 96.2 (7.7)
- Post injury: 72.0 (29.7)
Gross, 2012 [44], Switzerland Polytrauma patients defined as trauma victims with ISS ≥ 16 (N = 170); University hospital ICU; Prospective cohort study EQ-5D
SF-36
2.5 years (65%) Negative association with EQ-5D and SF-36: Brain injury HRQL:
EQ-VAS:
- Pre-injury: Non-TBI: 88.5 (17.6); TBI: 91.4 (9.5)
- Post-injury: Non-TBI: 69.9 (23.4); TBI: 59.4 (25.0)
EQ-5D:
- Pre-injury: Non-TBI: 94.5 (13.7); TBI: 98.6 (3.6)
- Post-injury: Non-TBI: 76.4 (20.8); TBI: 65.4 (27.7)
SF-36:
- Pre-injury:
PCS: non-TBI: 56.0 (6.9); TBI: 56.8 (5.5)
MCS: non-TBI: 50.8 (11.8); TBI: 50.3 (11.3)
- Post-injury:
PCS: non-TBI: 45.3 (10.6); TBI: 44.0 (11.9)
MCS: non-TBI: 48.1 (12.9); TBI: 38.9 (13.1)
Gross, 2019 [45], Switzerland Major trauma patients (15-63y) (NISS ≥ 8) (N = 1078); Teaching hospital; Prospective cohort study SF-36, EQ-5D & GOS 1 year
2 years
(31.2% year 1 & 2)
Associated with GOS outcomes between 1-2y after trauma: gender, age, trauma, energy, length of hospital stay HRQL:
EQ-5D:
- 1 year:
Male: 0.74 (0.22)
Female: 0.77 (0.19)
- 2 years:
Male: 0.74 (0.22)
Female: 0.80 (0.15)
SF-36:
- 1 year:
Male: PCS: 46.11 (9.78); MCS: 49.25 (12.66)
Female: PCS: 47.54 (9.24); MCS: 47.92 (11.81)
- 2 years:
Male: PCS: 46.29 (9.97); MCS: 50.14 (12.78)
Female: PCS: 48 .8(8.18); MCS: 49.61 (10.60)
Innocenti, 2014 [46], Italy Adult (≥18) patients admitted in ED-HDU for trauma (N = 418); Prospective cohort study SF-12 6 months (58%) Not defined Pre-injury:
- MCS: normal score: 94%
- PCS: normal score: 96%
After injury:
- MCS: normal score: 70%
- PCS: normal score: 58%
Innocenti, 2015 [47], Italy Mild to moderate trauma patients admitted to ED high dependency unit (N = 286); Prospective cohort study SF-12 6 months (53%) Older age, female, pre-existing medical conditions, high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score Pre-injury:
- PCS: 53 (7)
- MCS: 55 (7)
6 months:
- PCS: 41 (12)
- MCS: 46 (13)
Maintain normal value after injury:
PCS: 52%
MCS: 68%
Jagnoor, 2017 [48], India Children (2-16y) with overnight admission to hospital due to injury (N = 386); Hospital/secondary/tertiary care institution; Prospective multicentre study PedsQL Pre-injury (97%)
1 month (73%)
2 months
4 months
12 months (77% all time points)
Not defined Mean score:
- Baseline:
Physical score: 99.4 (3.4)
Psychosocial score: 99.4 (3.4)
- 1 month:
Physical: 79.7
Psychosocial: 86.3
- 2 months: all scores improved
Kendrick, 2017 [49], UK Patients (16-70y) with unintentional injury that required hospital admission (N = 668); Hospital; Prospective multicentre study EQ-5D-3 L 1 month (77%)
2 months (72%)
4 months (68%)
12 months (63%)
Associated with clinically important reductions in HRQL between 2 & 12 months post-injury: Higher depression and anxiety scores HRQL:
- Pre-injury: 0.92 (0.18)
- 1 month: 0.44 (0.28)
-2 months: 0.57 (0.27)
- 4 months: 0.69 (0.23)
- 12 months: 0.78 (0.21)
60% respondents 12 months after injury lower HRQL than pre-injury
Llaquet, 2018 [50], Spain Injured adult (≥16) patients admitted to intensive care unit in Spanish level 1 trauma centre (N = 304); Prospective cohort study EQ-5D-5 L Hospital discharge
3 months
6 months
12 months (66%)
Lower EQ-VAS: Age ≥ 55, female, unskilled employment HRQL:
EQ-VAS:
- Discharge: 60
- 3 months: 65
- 6 months: 70
- 12 months: 75
Nguyen, 2018 [51], Vietnam Adult injury patients hospitalised for at least 1 day (N = 892); Hospital; Prospective cohort study HUI3 1 month (86%)
2 months (86%)
4 months (85%)
12 months (82%)
Older age, more severe injury, other illnesses HRQL:
- 1 month: Males: 0.52; Female: 0.28
- 2 months: Males: 0.67; Females: 0.47 l
-4 months: Males: 0.77; Females: 0.57
- 12 months: Males: 0.87; Females: 0.71
Orwelius, 2012 [52], Sweden Adult patients with emergency admission to ICU (N = 146); ICU; Prospective multicentre study SF-36 6 months (74%)
12 months (58%)
24 months (39%)
Associated with HRQL: Pre-existing disease, Maximum SOFA score, APACHE-II score, marital status - 6-12 months: significant improvements for role limitations caused by physical problems; improvement in bodily pain
- 12-24 months: further improvements
Pieper, 2015 [53], US Children 8–17 with mild (brain) injury or no injury (N = 120); Paediatric emergency department; Prospective cohort study PedsQL Baseline (preinjury)
1 month
3 months
6 months
12 months (86%)
Not defined Total generic health:
- Baseline: Child: 83.5 Parent: 86.9
- 1 month: Child: 83.1 Parent: 84.2
- 3 months: Child: 86.1 Parent: 85.6
- 6 months: Child: 87.4 Parent: 85.7
- 12 months: Child: 88.6 Parent: 87.0
Rainer, 2014 [54], Hong Kong/Australia Adult (≥18) Major trauma patients (ISS ≥ 16); (Hong Kong: N = 225; Australia: N = 1752); Trauma registry; Prospective multicentre study SF-12
GOSE
6 months (HK: 72.4%; Australia: 83.4%)
12 months (HK: 62.1%; Australia: 85.8%)
Sex, age, ISS, Glasgow Coma Scale PCS:
- 6 months: HK: 42.7 (9.8); AUS: 41.6 (11.8)
- 12 months: HK: 42.2 (11.0); AUS: 42.6 (12.0)
MCS:
- 6 months: HK: 51.8 (12.4); AUS: 50.6 (11.4)
- 12 months: HK: 52.2 (10.9); AUS: 50.3 (11.2)
Rainer, 2014 [55], Hong Kong Adult (≥18) patients moderate/major trauma (ISS ≥ 9) (N = 400); Prospective multicentre study SF-36
GOSE
Baseline (preinjury) Discharge-30 days (84%)6 months (70%) 12 months (59%) Age > 65, male, pre-injury health problems, admission to ICU, ISS, baseline, 1 and 6 month PCS, 6 month MCS (univariate analysis only) GOSE: Upper good recovery %:
- Baseline: 3.5%
- 1 month: 9.7%
- 6 months: 16.0%
- 12 months: 16.5%
HRQL: % above norm
PCS: (norm HK: 52.83)
- Baseline: 4.8%
- 1 month: 6.7%
- 6 months: 15.0%
- 12 months: 15.5%
MCS: (norm HK: 47.18)
- Baseline: 57.0%
- 1 month: 28.5%
- 6 months: 39.7%
- 12 months: 31.2%
Ringdal, 2010 [56], Sweden Adult injury patients that required intensive care (N = 344); Hospital; Prospective multicentre study SF-36 4.5y to 5.5y after injury (71%) Delusional memories during ICU stay, pre-existing disease prior trauma 0.5–1.5 years:
- PCS: 65.9 (31.6)
- MCS: 63.7 (27.3)
4.5–5.5 years:
- PCS: 71.9 (30.1)
- MCS: 71.2 (22.5)
Rivara, 2014 [57], US Trauma patients (parents & children), with only parent injured, only child injured, both injured or neither injured (N = 570); Medical Centre; Prospective cohort study SF-36 (injured)
SF-12 (non-injured)
5 months
12 months (34%)
Parents injury affects child HRQL Baseline HRQL:
PCS:
Both injured: 55.5 (9.4)
Child injured: 52.0 (8.2)
Parent injured: 54.8 (9.1)
Neither injured: 53.2 (8.5)
MCS:
Both injured: 55.3 (8.3)
Child injured: 51.6 (7.9)
Parent injured: 54.0 (9.0)
Neither injured: 49.9 (11.2)
Schneeberg, 2016 [58], British Columbia Children (0-16y) who presented with primary injury at British Columbia Children’s Hospital (N = 582); Prospective cohort study PedsQL 4.0
Generic Core
PedsQL infant scales
Pre-injury (+ at least 1 follow-up: 35%)
1 month (44%)
4–6 months (29%)
12 months (28%)
Greater impact on HRQL 1 month post injury, steeper slope to recovery: Older age, hospitalisation Mean HRQL:
- Baseline: 90.7
- 1 month: 77.8
- 4 months: 90.3
- 12 months: 91.3
Soberg, 2012 [59], Norway Patients 18-67y with an NISS ≥ 16 and at least 2 injuries classified in AIS (N = 105); University hospital; Prospective cohort study SF-36
WHODAS II
6 weeks
1 year (99%)
2 years (94%)
5 years (80%)
PCS: Time points of measurement, time in hospital/rehabilitation, getting around, participation in society
MCS: time points of measurement, sex, education, WHODAS II cognitive function & participation in society
WHODAS-II scores:
Understanding/communicating:
- 6 weeks: 10.0 (0.0–30.0)
- 1 year: 10.0 (0.0–25.0)
- 2 years: 10 (0.0–25.0)
- 5 years: 10.0 (0.0–30.0)
Getting around:
- 6 weeks: 37.5 (12.5–62.5)
- 1 year: 12.5 (0.0–37.5)
- 2 years: 12.5 (0.0–37.5)
- 5 years: 12.5 (0.0–31.3)
Self-care:
- 6 weeks: 20.0 (0.0–30.0)
- 1 year: 0.0 (0.0–10.0)
- 2 years: 0.0 (0.0–10.0)
- 5 years: 0.0 (0.0–10.0)
Getting along with people:
- 6 weeks: 16.7 (8.3–35.4)
- 1 year: 16.7 (0.0–25.0)
- 2 years: 16.7 (8.3–33.3)
- 5 years: 20.8 (8.3–33.3)
Life activities:
- 6 weeks: 50.0 (35.0–80.0)
- 1 year: 30.0 (10.0–50.0)
- 2 years: 40.0 (0.0–50.0)
- 5 years: 20.0 (0.0, 50.0)
Participation in society:
- 6 weeks: 45.8 (37.5–58.3)
- 1 year: 25.0 (12.5–41.7)
- 2 years: 25.0 (8.3–41.7)
- 5 years: 18.8 (8.3–34.4)
Soberg, 2015 [60], Norway Patients (18-67y) with severe multiple injuries (N = 105); Hospital; Prospective cohort study SF-36 1 year
2 years
5 years
10 years (55.2%)
PCS: change in coping from 2 to 10 years
PCS and MCS: bodily pain at 2 years;
MCS: change in coping, vitality at 1 year, social functioning and mental health at 2 years
10 years:
- PCS: 41.8 (11.7)
- MCS: 48.8 (10.7)
Reduced PCS compared with adjusted general population; MCS not different from general population
Tamura, 2018 [61], Japan All eligible consecutive trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit of one tertiary care hospital (N = 187); Prospective cohort study SF-36 6 months (84%)
12 months (69%)
Not identified Median [IQR]:
- Discharge: PCS: 21 [10, 35]; MCS: 56 [48, 66]
- 6 months: PCS: 43 [33,51]; MCS: 52 [44, 61]
- 12 months: PCS: 44 [32, 53]; MCS: 53 [46, 59]
Role Social:
- Discharge: 21 [10, 38]
- 6 months: 39 [23, 52]
- 12 months: 45 [29, 53]
12 months post injury: 12% dependent on home care
Tøien, 2011 [62], Norway Hospitalised trauma patients (18-75y) (N = 393); Trauma referral centre; Prospective cohort study SF-36 3 months (77%)
12 months (64%)
All dimensions: optimism; Physical functioning: high depression score baseline, lower age, head injury; Mental functioning: high depression score baseline, higher age, being employed or studying before trauma; Bodily pain & vitality: high depression score baseline; General health: optimism, low PTSD at baseline, lower ISS HRQL: differences men/women
3 months:
- Mental health: Men: 76.6; Women: 71.3
- Vitality: Men: 57.3; Women: 46.6
12 months:
- Vitality: Men: 56.8; Women: 50.0
Yiengprugsawan, 2014 [63], Thailand Distance learning students 15-87y enrolled at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (N = 87,134); Prospective cohort study MOS-SF-8 4 years (70%) Injury exposure HRQL injury yes/no:
PCS:
- 2005-no 2009-no: 50.2 [49.8–50.5]
- 2005-yes 2009-no: 47.4 [46.3–48.4]
- 2005-no 2009-yes: 49.2 [48.3–50.1]
- 2005-yes 2009-yes: 46.3 [44.6–48.1]
MCS:
- 2005-no 2009-no: 48.0 [47.6–48.4]
- 2005-yes 2009-no: 46.0 [44.8–47.2]
- 2005-no 2009-yes: 47.1 [46.0–48.2]
- 2005-yes 2009-yes: 44.9 [42.8–46.8]
Zarzaur, 2016 [64], US Traumatically injured adult patients (≥18) (N = 500); Trauma centre; Prospective cohort study SF-36 1 month (93%)
2 months (82%)
4 months (70%)
12 months (58%)
3 PCS trajectories, 5 MCS trajectories:
PCS: 1. Low baseline score, no improvement; 2. Declines 1 month after injury, then improves over time; 3.Sharp decline followed by rapid recovery; MCS 1. Low baseline, remain low; 2. Large decrease post-injury, no recovery over next 12 months; 3.initial decrease in MCS early, followed by continuous recovery; 4. Steady decline over study period; 5. Consistently high at all time points
Not identified
Zarzaur, 2017 [65], US Traumatically injured patients (≥18y) (N = 225); Level 1 trauma centre; Prospective cohort study SF-36 Baseline (preinjury)
1 month (94%)
2 months (83%)
4 months (69%)
12 months (64%)
PCS: individual income; MCS: high resiliency score; age; income Different trajectories of recovery
- Either improvement of physical and/or mental health or decline
  1. ISS Injury Severity Score, SF-12 Medical Outcome Study Short Form-12 items, GOSE Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, SF-36 Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 items, ICU Intensive Care Unit, PCS Physical Component Score, MCS Mental Component Score, EQ-5D-3 L EQ-5D with three response options per dimension, GOS Glasgow Outcome Scale, HUI3 Health Utilities Index 3, PTSD Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, MOS-SF-8 Medical Outcome Study Short-Form, ED Emergency Department, ACC Accident Compensation Corporation, QALY Quality Adjusted Life Year, WHODAS II World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule version II, BMI Body Mass Index, NISS New Injury Severity Score, MFA Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment, TOP Trauma Outcome Profile, AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, APACHE-II Acute Physiology Age Chronic Health Evaluation, ED-HDU Emergency Department High Dependency Unit, RTW Return To Work, EQ-VAS European Quality of Life instrument Visual Analogue Scale, FIM Functional Independence Measure, PedsQL Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scales
  2. Articles are ordered alphabetically, and articles that come one after the other and have the same bold/non-bold font are from the same study