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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the sample

From: Association between sleep quality and domains of quality of life amongst patients with first episode psychosis

  Frequency, N Percent
Age 20 and below 69 24.6
21–30 142 50.7
31–40 69 24.6
Gender Male 142 50.7
Female 138 49.3
Ethnic Group Chinese 200 71.4
Malay 41 14.6
Indian 25 8.9
Other 14 5.0
Marital Status Ever Married 40 14.3
Never Married 239 85.4
Religion Christianity 70 25.0
Buddhism 74 26.4
Hinduism 14 5.0
Islam 56 20.0
Taoism 6 2.1
Others 60 21.4
Education ‘O’/‘N’ Level and Below 77 27.5
‘A’ Level/NITEC/Higher NITEC/Polytechnic Diploma/Other Diploma & Professional Qualification 152 54.3
University 51 18.2
Work Status Student/Homemaker/Housewife 78 27.9
Working/National Service 118 42.1
Unemployed 78 27.9
SCID Diagnosis Schizophrenia and related psychosis 212 75.7
Mood disorder with psychotic symptoms 23 8.2
Smoking Habit Never smoked 167 59.6
Current smoker 95 33.9
Social and ex-smoker 17 6.1
AUDIT score No-hazardous use (score < 8) 244 87.1
Hazardous use (score ≥ 8) 36 12.9
PSQI score Poor sleep quality (score > 5) 176 62.9
Normal sleep quality (score ≤ 5) 98 35.0
Taking FGAs Yes 26 9.3
No 254 90.7
Taking SGAs Yes 231 82.5
No 49 17.5
Taking AD/MS Yes 88 31.4
No 192 68.6
   Mean SD
Baseline PANSS Positive 21.89 5.994
Negative 15.76 8.733
GPS 38.16 11.346
Baseline GAF Total 44.30 12.062
DUP since onset of symptoms (in months) 13.55 21.685
Daily dosage converted to CPZ 279.0325 216.7946
PSQI Component 1: Subjective Sleep Quality 1.11 0.839
Component 2: Sleep Latency 1.45 0.995
Component 3: Sleep Duration 0.81 1.119
Component 4: Habitual Sleep Efficiency 0.69 1.040
Component 5: Sleep Disturbances 1.34 0.751
Component 6: Use of Sleeping Medication 1.14 1.316
Component 7: Daytime Dysfunction 1.24 0.972
Global PSQI Score 7.81 4.429
WHOQOL-BREF Physical health 13.89 2.742
Psychological 12.13 3.148
Social Relationship 12.83 3.058
Environment 13.40 2.775
  1. Note: 1 missing response for marital status (0.4%); 6 missing response for work status (2.1%); 45 missing response for SCID diagnosis (16.1%); 1 missing response for smoking habit (0.4%); 6 missing response PSQI (2.1%)
  2. AD anti-depressant, AUDIT alcohol use disorder identification test, CPZ chlorpromazine, DUP duration of untreated psychosis, FGAs first generation antipsychotics, GAF general assessment of functioning, GPS general psychopathology, MS Mood Stabilizer, PANSS positive and negative syndrome scale, PSQI Pittsburg sleep quality index, SCID structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental diseases, SGAs Second generation antipsychotics, WHOQOL-BREF World Health Organization Quality of Life - BREF