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Table 4 Results from studies included in the quantitative synthesis (N = 10)- correlates associated with wellbeing or mental health among YPLHIV in SSA

From: Informing the measurement of wellbeing among young people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa for policy evaluations: a mixed-methods systematic review

Author yearRegression techniqueOutcome 1 (scale)Univariable/Bivariable analysis
(effect size, 95% CI, p value)$
Multivariable analysis
(effect size, 95% CI, p values) $
(Abebe et al., 2019)Logistic regressionDepressive symptoms
(BDI-II)
• 15–19 yrs.
(OR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.92–4.21, p ≤ 0.2)
• Opportunistic infection
(OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.29–2.78, p ≤ 0.2)
• Stigma
(OR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.88–4.00, p ≤ 0.2)
• Poor adherence
(OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.44–3.09, p ≤ 0.2)
• Low adherence
(OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.78–5.82, p ≤ 0.2)
• Moderate social support
(OR = 2.08, 95% CI 1.27–3.39, p ≤ 0.2)
• 15–19 yrs.
(OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.33–3.62, p < 0.01)
• Opportunistic infection
(OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.15–3.27, p < 0.01)
• Stigma
(OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.35–3.14, p < 0.001)
• Poor Adherence
(OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.13–2.64, p < 0.01)
• Low social support
(OR = 2.74, 95% CI 1.42–5.27, p < 0.01)
• Moderate social support
(OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.03–2.98, p < 0.05)
(Dow et al., 2016)Negativebinomial regressionDepressive symptoms (PHQ-9)• Age (per 1 year)
(MR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.18, p < .001)
• Female
(MR: 1.62, 95% CI1.15–2.28; p = .006)
• Not in school
(MR: 1.65, 95% CI 1.12–2.43; p = .01)
• Stigma (per 1 point)
• (MR: 1.09, 95% CI1.06–1.13; p < .001)
• Age (per 1 year)
(MR: 1.08, 95% CI 1.03–1.14, p = .004)
• Female
(MR: 1.52, 95% CI1.11–2.09; p = .01)
• Stigma (per 1 point)
(MR: 1.08, 95% CI1.04–1.11; p < .001)
• Incomplete adherence
(MR: 1.52, 95% CI1.07–2.18; p = .02)
(Earnshaw et al., 2018)Poisson regressionDepressive symptoms (BDI-II)• Internalised stigma
(RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.19–1.34, p ≤ 0.05)
• Associative stigma
(RR = 1.55, 95% CI 1.43–1.68, p ≤ 0.05)
• Internalised*associative stigma
(RR = 1.12 (95% CI 1.09–1.14), p ≤ 0.05)
• Internalised stigma
(RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.13–1.34, p ≤ 0.05)
• Associative stigma
(RR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.37–1.84, p ≤ 0.05)
(Gaitho et al., 2018)Linear regressionDepressive symptoms• 15–19 years
(OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.6–4.3, p < 0.001)
• frequent changing of schools in the preceding 2 years due to repeated adversities
(OR = 1.66, 95% CI 0.99–2.81, p = 0.05)
• repeating a grade
(OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.11–3.11, p = 0.02)
• lack of school fees
(OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.23–6.31, p = 0.005)
• unavailability of food
(OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.27–6.31, p = 0.009)
• ran away from home
(OR = 3.39, 95% CI 1.09–10.58, p = 0.03)
• substance use
(OR = 3.57, 95% CI 1.29–9.92, p = 0.01)
• non-perfect adherence to their medications (OR = 2.62, 95% CI 1.60,-4.28, p ≤ 0.001)
• 15–19 years
(OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.36–4.04, p < 0.02)
• having had an experience of repeating a grade (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.0–3.05, p = 0.05)
• having had an experience of being refused school participationdue to lack of school fees
(OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.0–2.91, p = 0.05)
• non-adherence to medication
(OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.08–3.14, p = 0.03)
(Gentz et al., 2017)Hierarchical multiple linear regressionTotal difficulties-(SDQ)Total difficulties
• Orphanhood
• (β = 0.138, 95% CI NR, p < .05
Total difficulties-Final model
• Child assets
(β = − 0.22, 95% CI NR, p < 0.05)
• Stigma
• (β = − 0.261, 95% CI NR, p < 0.05)
(Kim et al., 2015)Linear/
logistic regression
Depressive symptoms (BDI II)NRFinal model
• Female
(β: 2.13, 95% CI 0.82–3.43, p = 0.002)
• Not in school/junior primary
(β: 3.84, 95% CI 1.71–5.98, p = 0.0005)
• Nobody in my family has died
(β: − 1.77, 95% CI − 3.15- − 0.39, p = 0.001)
• Did not fail school term/class
(β: − 1.46, 95% CI − 2.76- − 0.17, p = 0.003)
• Bullying for taking medication
(β: 5.31, 95% CI 3.19–7.43, p < 0.0001)
• Never had a boyfriend/girlfriend
(β: − 2.38, 95% CI − 4.35- − 0.41, p = 0.02)
• Disclosed and have shared with someone (β: − 1.83, 95% CI − 3.79-0.13, p = 0.02)
• Level of immunosuppression (None or not significant)
(β:− 2.58, 95% CI − 4.29- − 0.87, p = 0.0009)
• Age* satisfaction with physical appearance interaction
(β:− 0.93, 95% CI − 1.74- − 0.11, p = 0.03)
• Age* Height for age z-score interaction –(β: − 0.39, 95% CI − 0.68- − 0.11, p = 0.007)
(Mbalinda et al., 2015)Logistic regressionPhysical health functioning-(MOS- HIV)NR• Secondary
(aOR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.20–0.85, p = 0.01)
• Northern region
(aOR: 0.25, 95% CI0.16–0.42; p = < 0.001)
• Currently on ARVs
(aOR: 2.07, 95% CI1.24–3.36; p < 0.05)
• Has a friend who is smoking cigarette- (aOR: 0.48, 95% CI0.29–0.80; p = < 0.001)
(Mutumba et al., 2017)Hierarchical multiple linear regressionPsychological distressNRFinal model
• Female
(β: 0.061, 95% CI NR, p = 0.08)
• Pentecostal
(β: 0.086, 95% CI NR, p = 0.02)
• Paternal orphan
(β: − 0.083, 95% CI NR, p = 0.05)
• Double orphan
(β: − 0.094, 95% CI NR, p = 0.07)
• Daily hassles
(β: 0.118, 95% CI NR, p = 0.01)
• Negative life events
(β: 0.209, 95% CI NR, p < 0.01)
• HIV-related QoL
(β: 0.299, 95% CI NR, p < 0.01)
• HIV stigma
(β:0.089, 95% CI NR, p = 0.02)
• Religiosity
(β: 0.078, 95% CI NR, p = 0.02)
• Religious coping
(β: − 0.083, 95% CI NR, p = 0.02)
• Optimism
(β:− 0.063, 95% CI NR, p = 0.09)
• Satisfied with social support
(β: − 0.169, 95% CI NR, p < 0.01)
• General coping styleand behaviours
(β: − 0.160, 95% CI NR, p < 0.01)
(Okawa et al., 2018)Logistic regression (multiple)Depressive symptoms (CES-D) • Fair/unsatisfied with relationship with family
(aOR: 3.01, 95% CI 1.20–7.56, p < 0.01)
• Fair/unsatisfied with relationship with HCWs
(aOR: 2.68, 95% CI1.04–6.93; p = < 0.001)
• Experienced HIV stigma
(aOR: 2.99, 95% CI1.07–8.41; p = 0.01)
(Woollett et al., 2017)No formal regression, calculated relative risks using Altman’s formulaDepressive symptoms (CDI-S)• Been hit
(RR: 1.97, 95% CI NR, p 0.02)
• Been inappropriately touched
(RR: 2.22, 95% CI NR; p = 0.01)
• Do not feel like they control their future
(RR: 2.55, 95% CI NR; p = 0.04)
• Do not feel safe at home (RR: 5.17, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• Do not have a dream
(RR: 4.62, 95% CI NR; p < .001
• Do not have a safe place in the communityfor adolescents
(RR: 2.31, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• Experienced forced sex (RR:3.55, 95% CI NR; p = 0.02)
• Experienced peer violence outside of school
(RR:2.16, 95% CI NR; p = 0.01)
• Experienced peer violence at school andoutside
(RR:1.77, 95% CI NR; p = 0.04)
• Reports any form of suicidality
(RR: 3.44, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• Think about a way to kill themselves
(RR: 3.54, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• Think about killing themselves
(RR: 3.22, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• Try to kill themselves- (RR: 3.76, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• Want to hurt themselves- (RR: 2.74, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• Wish they were dead- (RR: 3.71, 95% CI NR; p < .001)
• NR
  1. NR Not reported, MR Mean ratio, OR Odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, QoL quality of life, RR risk ratio, $ = factors considered statistically significant (as per the study’s definition) are only presented, * = interaction terms