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Table 1 Basic characteristic of the sample at baseline

From: Assessing the proxy response bias of EQ–5D-3 L in general population: a study based on a large-scale representative household health survey using propensity score matching

 TotalProxy-reportSelf-reportP
n = (44134)(n = 8789)(n = 35,345)
Household heads18,884 (42.8)1698 (19.3)17,186 (48.6)<  0.001
Age (y)
 15–4418,282 (41.4)5070 (57.7)13,212 (37.4)<  0.001
 45–6418,339 (41.6)2216 (25.2)16,123 (45.6) 
  > 657513 (17.0)1503 (17.1)6010 (17.0) 
Male22,610 (51.2)4643 (52.8)17,967 (50.8)0.001
Marital status
 Unmarried5497 (12.5)2687 (30.6)2810 (8.0)<  0.001
 Married34,955 (79.2)5265 (59.9)29,690 (84.0) 
 Widowed3198 (7.2)733 (8.3)2465 (7.0) 
 Divorced436 (1.0)83 (0.9)353 (1.0) 
 Others48 (0.1)21 (0.2)27 (0.1) 
Senior high school and below34,605 (78.4)5942 (67.6)28,663 (81.1)<  0.001
In agriculture industry36,825 (83.4)7074 (80.5)29,751 (84.2)<  0.001
Employment status
 Employed32,545 (73.7)5246 (59.7)27,299 (77.2)<  0.001
 Retiree2756 (6.2)478 (5.4)2278 (6.4) 
 Student1999 (4.5)1256 (14.3)743 (2.1) 
 Unemployed6834 (15.5)1809 (20.6)5025 (14.2) 
Smoking status
 Smoker13,742 (31.1)2412 (27.4)11,330 (32.1)<  0.001
 Ex-smoker1316 (3.0)202 (2.3)1114 (3.2) 
 Non-smoker29,076 (65.9)6175 (70.3)22,901 (64.8) 
Alcohol consumption
 1–2 times a week6563 (14.9)1203 (13.7)5360 (15.2)<  0.001
  ≥ 3 times a week1763 (4.0)287 (3.3)1476 (4.2) 
 Non-drinker35,808 (81.1)7299 (83.0)28,509 (80.7) 
Physical exercise
  ≥ 6 times a week4785 (10.8)1004 (11.4)3781 (10.7)<  0.001
  < 6 times a week5636 (12.8)1383 (15.7)4253 (12.0) 
 Never exercised33,713 (76.4)6402 (72.8)27,311 (77.3) 
Chronic disease morbidity10,152 (23.0)1572 (17.9)8580 (24.3)<  0.001
Two-week morbidity rate8621 (19.5)1323 (15.1)7298 (20.6)<  0.001
Hospitalized4191 (9.5)682 (7.8)3509 (9.9)<  0.001