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Table 1 Patient socio-demographic and medical characteristics by cardiac rhythm device type

From: Health-related quality of life outcomes in pediatric patients with cardiac rhythm devices: a cross-sectional study with case-control comparison

  Total sample
(n = 72)
PM
(n = 59)
ICD
(n = 13)
Comparison:
PM vs. ICD group
p value
Female sex, n (%) 28 (39) 25 (42) 3 (23) .23
Age at assessment (years), mean (SD), range 11.3 (4.6), 3.2–18.0 10.5 (4.4), 3.2–17.9 14.9 (3.2), 7.6–18.0 <.001
Swiss nationality, n (%) 59 (82) 47 (80) 12 (92) .44
Socio-economic status, n (%) .23
 Lower class 3 (4) 3 (6) 0  
 Middle class 49 (68) 38 (64) 11 (84)  
 Upper class 17 (24) 16 (27) 1 (8)  
 Unknown 3 (4) 2 (3) 1 (8)  
Number of previous life events, mean (SD), range 2.2 (1.9), 0–7 2.3 (2.0), 0–7 1.7 (1.3), 0–4 .44
Age at initial device implant (years), mean (SD), range 4.7 (4.4), 0–15.3 3.5 (3.5), 0–12.6 9.8 (4.0), 2.9–15.3 <.001
 Newborn (age ≤ 28 days), n (%) 7 (10) 7 (12) 0  
 Infant/toddler (29 days to 3 years), n (%) 23 (32) 22 (37) 1 (8)  
 Preschool (3 to 6 years), n (%) 18 (25) 17 (29) 1 (8)  
 School-age (6 to 13 years), n (%) 21 (29) 13 (22) 8 (62)  
 Adolescent (age > 13 years), n (%) 3 (4) 0 3 (23)  
Time since initial device implant (years), mean (SD), range 6.7 (4.5), 0.4–17.9 7.1 (4.6), 0.4–17.9 5.1 (3.9), 0.5–12.7 .23
Device system, n (%)
 Single-chamber 9 (13) 4 (7) 5 (39)  
 Dual-chamber 63 (87) 55 (93) 8 (61) .002
Location of electrode, n (%)
 Epicardial 69 (96) 59 (100) 10 (77)  
 Endocardial 3 (4) 0 3 (23) NA
Electrophysiological disease, n (%)
 Postoperative heart block 20 (28) 20 (34)   
 Congenital heart block 25 (35) 25 (42)   
 Sinoatrial node disease 14 (19) 14 (24)   
 Ventricular tachycardia or fibrillationa 13 (18)   13 (100) NA
ICD indication, n (%)
 Primary prevention NA NA 7 (54)  
 Secondary prevention NA NA 6 (46) NA
ICD Severity Index, mean (SD), range NA NA 8.0 (3.8), 3–16 NA
Structural congenital heart disease, n (%)
 Biventricular physiology 34 (47) 26 (44) 8 (61)  
 Univentricular physiology 6 (8) 6 (10) 0  
 No structural congenital heart disease 32 (45) 27 (46) 5 (39) .34
Previous open heart surgery, n (%) 33 (46) 30 (51) 3 (23) .07
Number of device-related post-initial-implant surgeries, n (%)
 None 38 (53) 33 (56) 5 (39)  
 One 21 (29) 15 (25) 6 (46)  
 More than one 13 (18) 11 (19) 2 (15) .25
Time since last device-related surgery (years), mean (SD), range 3.5 (2.6), 0.3–12.7 3.9 (2.6), 0.3–12.7 1.8 (1.5), 0.3–5.4 .004
Total length of cardiac hospitalization (days), mean (SD), range 52.4 (32.5), 2–266 57.0 (62.4), 2–266 31.5 (33.0), 3–133 .26
Current cardiac medication
 Antiarrhythmic, n (%) 17 (24) 7 (12) 10 (77) <.001
 Heart failure, n (%) 6 (8) 5 (9) 1 (8) .93
Other non-cardiac chronic disease, n (%) 13 (18) 9 (15) 4 (31) .19
  1. NA Not applicable, PM Pacemaker, ICD Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  2. Chi square tests or Mann-Whitney-U tests were performed
  3. a Patients with documented ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation or with a significant risk of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation
  4. Significant values are indicated in bold