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Table 4 Simulation Performance Measures for Complete Case Analysis (CCA), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Multiple Imputation (MI)

From: Impact of missing data on bias and precision when estimating change in patient-reported outcomes from a clinical registry

Missing Mechanism Model Parameter Performance Measure 10% Missing 25% Missing 50% Missing
CCA ML MI CCA ML MI CCA ML MI
MCAR β 0 Bias 5.57 6.90 7.53 2.03 1.09 3.97 −0.19 1.51 6.23
RMSE 1.89 1.83 1.84 2.14 1.96 1.97 2.68 2.19 2.23
CI Width 8.28 8.09 8.12 9.06 8.48 8.56 11.14 9.31 9.50
β T Bias −2.91 −3.29 −11.63 −3.47 −1.79 −20.61 − 1.90 −2.21 − 39.96
RMSE 0.47 0.47 0.45 0.54 0.52 0.49 0.68 0.60 0.53
CI Width 2.18 2.15 2.15 2.38 2.29 2.31 2.92 2.62 2.64
β TS Bias 3.21 3.27 15.30 3.30 0.89 29.48 −4.47 −2.62 60.89
RMSE 0.59 0.59 0.55 0.68 0.66 0.56 0.86 0.76 0.58
CI Width 2.85 2.81 2.81 3.12 3.00 3.00 3.81 3.43 3.32
MAR β 0 Bias 14.08 6.19 7.17 11.42 0.56 2.01 −13.98 −9.28 −6.69
RMSE 1.87 1.81 1.81 2.08 1.91 1.92 2.59 2.12 2.16
CI Width 8.21 8.05 8.08 8.89 8.39 8.47 10.67 9.12 9.24
β T Bias 20.71 14.92 9.90 42.60 32.55 21.65 86.01 64.71 43.61
RMSE 0.47 0.46 0.44 0.56 0.52 0.47 0.81 0.66 0.52
CI Width 2.14 2.12 2.13 2.30 2.23 2.25 2.72 2.51 2.56
β TS Bias 11.25 10.53 21.15 21.13 18.10 45.06 10.25 3.52 64.01
RMSE 0.60 0.59 0.56 0.69 0.66 0.59 0.85 0.75 0.59
CI Width 2.83 2.80 2.81 3.09 2.98 2.98 3.79 3.41 3.31
MNAR β 0 Bias −52.67 −41.61 −39.78 − 111.56 − 82.51 −80.01 − 171.53 − 105.67 − 102.79
RMSE 2.05 1.89 1.89 3.08 2.45 2.43 5.23 3.16 3.17
CI Width 8.13 7.95 7.97 8.79 8.27 8.34 10.70 9.16 9.35
β T Bias −1.46 7.61 −2.71 −25.40 −9.78 −36.13 −73.72 −47.93 − 110.44
RMSE 0.47 0.47 0.45 0.57 0.53 0.51 0.87 0.69 0.76
CI Width 2.19 2.15 2.17 2.42 2.32 2.34 3.04 2.70 2.73
β TS Bias −17.53 −18.53 −5.93 −32.42 −34.40 −3.92 −45.61 −45.24 17.64
RMSE 0.59 0.59 0.54 0.72 0.69 0.54 0.99 0.88 0.53
CI Width 2.85 2.81 2.82 3.13 3.01 3.02 3.90 3.50 3.41
  1. CI Width Average width of the 95% confidence interval, Bias Standardized bias, RMSE Root mean squared error