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Table 6 Associations of strabismus with borderline/abnormal parent-reported mental health scores (age 3–17 years). Data from the KiGGS Study 2003–2006

From: Health-related quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents with strabismus – results of the representative population-based survey KiGGS

Mental health domain Crude OR
(n = 12,895)
Adjusted ORa
(n = 11,708)
Total score 1.78 [1.43; 2.23] 1.59 [1.20; 2.10]
Emotional symptoms 1.51 [1.21; 1.88] 1.26 [0.99; 1.60]
Conduct problems 0.99 [0.80; 1.24] 1.00 [0.78; 1.29]
Hyperactivity/inattention 1.64 [1.28; 2.10] 1.52 [1.15; 2.01]
Peer problems 1.44 [1.15; 1.80] 1.35 [1.05; 1.73]
Prosocial behavior 0.67 [0.13; 3.37] 0.40 [0.08; 1.93]
  1. Results are given as crude and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) calculated by binary logistic regression analysis
  2. a Adjusted for age, sex, siblings, socio-economic status, migrant background, residence (rural/small town/town/city), East/West Germany, presence of chronic medical condition, type of day care, and official disability