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Table 3 Associations of strabismus with health-related quality of life scores. Data from the KiGGS Study 2003–2006

From: Health-related quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents with strabismus – results of the representative population-based survey KiGGS

Health-related quality of life domain Parent-reports (age 3–17 years) Self-reports (age 11–17 years)
Crude Beta
N = 12,812
Adjusted Betaa
N = 11,671
Crude Beta
N = 5589
Adjusted Betaa
N = 5145
Total scale −1.88 [−2.77; − 0.99]; − 0.95 [− 1.78; − 0.11]; − 1.67 [−3.03; − 0.31]; −1.30 [− 2.65; 0.06];
Physical well-being − 2.21 [− 3.81; − 0.60]; −0.70 [− 2.40; 1.01]; −0.50 [− 2.70; 1.69]; 0.30 [− 1.89; 2.50];
Emotional well-being −1.46 [− 2.64; − 0.27]; −0.77 [− 1.95; 0.41]; −0.80 [− 2.49; 0.88]; −0.74 [− 2.42; 0.95];
Self-esteem −2.10 [− 3.48; − 0.71]; − 1.25 [− 2.72; 0.22]; −1.22 [− 3.65; 1.20]; −0.42 [− 2.85; 2.02];
Family − 1.02 [− 2.18; 0.13]; − 0.32 [− 1.51; 0.87]; − 2.34 [− 4.38; − 0.30]; − 1.77 [− 3.94; 0.41];
Friends −2.99 [− 4.41; − 1.57]; −2.16 [− 3.53; − 0.78]; 3.24 [− 5.25; − 1.23]; −3.07 [− 5.10; − 1.03];
School − 1.60 [− 3.33; 0.12]; − 0.36 [− 1.93; 1.22]; − 1.43 [− 4.04; 1.19]; −1.74 [− 4.27; 0.79];
  1. Results are given as crude and adjusted betas (95% confidence intervals) calculated by linear regression analysis. There is a difference in sample size between crude and adjusted analyses due to missings in the adjustment variables. In addition, parent-reports were available from age 3–17 years, while self-reports were only obtained in 11–17 year-old adolescents
  2. a Adjusted for age, sex, siblings, socio-economic status, migrant background, residence (rural/small town/town/city), East/West Germany, presence of chronic medical condition, type of day care, and official disability