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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores in Ethiopian university students

From: Psychometric properties of the Epworth sleepiness scale in Ethiopian university students

Epworth Sleepiness Scale items Mean ± SD Skewness Kurtosis Item scores
Statistics (SE) Z-Score Statistics (SE) Z-Score 0
Frequency (%)
1
Frequency (%)
2
Frequency (%)
3
Frequency (%)
Sitting and Reading 0.94 ± 0.90 .59 (.13) 4.37 −.59 (.27) −2.19 125 (38.0%) 117 (35.6%) 68 (20.7%) 19 (5.8%)
Watching TV 0.59 ± 0.91 1.42(.13) 10.58 .94(.27) 3.49 209 (63.5%) 67 (20.4%) 32 (9.7%) 21 (6.4%)
Sitting inactive in a public place (i.e., a theatre) 0.78 ± 0.90 .93(.13) 6.91 −.08(.27) −.29 159 (48.3%) 103 (31.3%) 48 (14.6%) 19 (5.8%)
As a car passenger for an hour without a break 0.97 ± 1.05 .73(.13) 5.40 −.76(.27) −2.82 146 (44.4%) 90 (27.4%) 51 (15.5%) 42 (12.8%)
Lying down to rest in the afternoon 1.48 ± 1.12 .01(.13) .04 −1.37(.27) −5.12 87 (26.4%) 77 (23.4%) 86 (26.1%) 79 (24.0%)
Sitting and talking to someone 0.56 ± 0.81 1.35(.13) 10.01 .97(.27) 3.62 202 (61.4%) 81 (24.6%) 35 (10.6%) 11 (3.3%)
Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol 0.74 ± 0.98 1.10(.13) 8.19 .01(.27) .02 184 (55.9%) 76 (23.1%) 41 (12.5%) 28 (8.5%)
In a car, while stopping for a few minutes in traffic 0.78 ± 0.97 1.03(.13) 7.67 −.04(.27) −.13 168 (51.1%) 93 (28.3%) 39 (11.9%) 29 (8.8%)
ESS total score   .46(.13) 3.44 −.07(.27) −.26     
  1. SD: Standard deviation; SE: Standard error