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Table 2 Descriptive statistics for the total sample and the PA and No PA groups, and comparisons on demographic variables and outcome measures

From: Depression and quality of life in adults perceiving exposure to parental alienation behaviors

  Total sample PA No PA F d
n = 491 n = 319 n = 172   
Mean age 32.43 (12.93) 29.76 (11.89) 37.40 (13.33) 10.99** 0.60
Gender     3.46 0.17
Female 59.67 62.70 54.07   
Male 40.33 37.30 45.93   
Years of education     7.11 0.24
Five to twelve years 19.55 19.75 19.19   
Thirteen years 52.14 50.78 54.65   
More than thirteen years 28.31 29.47 26.16   
Job status     1.65 0.15
Employed 38.98 31.66 52.63   
Unemployed 19.80 18.50 22.22   
Student 41.22 49.84 25.15   
Parental separation/divorce     36.22*** 0.56
No 78.62 68.97 96.51   
Yes 21.38 31.03 3.49   
BDI-II 8.61 (8.30) 9.43 (8.55) 7.10 (7.61) 5.15* 0.10
BDI-6 2.64 (2.71) 2.97 (2.78) 2.04 (2.46) 6.79** 0.14
WHO-3 52.71 (19.18) 50.58 (18.48) 56.67 (19.87) 8.67** 0.17
SF-36 PF 93.25 (10.51) 93.20 (10.78) 93.34 (10.03) 1.57 0.01
SF-36 RP 81.93 (30.27) 78.76 (31.50) 87.79 (26.97) 6.74* 0.14
SF-36 BP 78.46 (21.45) 76.62 (21.45) 81.86 (21.09) 6.34* 0.13
SF-36 GH 67.90 (17.88) 66.02 (18.33) 71.40 (16.52) 13.33*** 0.27
SF-36 VT 59.71 (18.81) 57.52 (18.63) 63.75 (18.53) 6.68* 0.14
SF-36 SF 71.26 (22.76) 67.91 (22.85) 77.47 (21.32) 9.78** 0.20
SF-36 RE 67.14 (39.47) 63.11 (39.58) 74.61 (38.26) 3.39 0.01
SF-36 MH 63.16 (18.07) 60.99 (17.57) 67.19 (18.33) 9.51** 0.19
  1. BDI-II = Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI-6 = 6-item version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II; No PA = no exposure to Parental Alienation behaviors; PA = any exposure to Parental Alienation behaviors; SF-36 PF = Physical Functioning; SF-36 RP = Role Physical; SF-36 BP = Bodily Pain; SF-36 GH = General Health; SF-36 VT = Vitality; SF-36 SF = Social Functioning; SF-36 RE = Role Emotional; SF-36 MH = Mental Health; WHO-3 = 3-item version of the 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index
  2. *p < 0.05. **p < 0.01. ***p < 0.001