Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 6 Final model after Multiple linear regression analysis for physical, psychological, social and environmental health domains of QOL BREF in Abbottabad, Pakistan

From: Assessing the quality of life among Pakistani general population and their associated factors by using the World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF): a population based cross-sectional study

  Physical Domain Psychological Domain Relationship Domain Environmental Domain
  Fixed – effect parameters
Variable β P value 95% CI β P value 95% CI β P value 95% CI β P value 95% CI
LL UL LL UL LL UL LL UL
Type of Residence
 Urban R     R     R     R    
 Rural −3.19 0.017 −5.81 −0.57 −2.70 0.036 −5.23 −0.18 −5.34 0.002 −8.66 −2.02
Sex                 
 Male R     R     R     R    
 Female −3.24 <0.001 −4.59 −1.88 −3.25 <0.001 −4.48 −2.01 −1.61 0.024 −3.01 −0.21
Age (decade) −0.24 <0.001 −0.29 − 0.19 − 0.123 <0.001 − 0.17 −0.07 − 0.07 0.018 − 0.12 −0.01
Disease
 Physical disability −9.27 <0.001 −14.4 −4.11 −6.55 0.010 −11.5 − 1.55
 Hypertension −4.42 <0.001 −7.11 −1.73 −2.56 0.054 −5.17 0.05
 Diabetes −10.5 <0.001 −14.4 −6.64 −5.78 0.003 −9.53 −2.03
 Other −4.61 <0.001 −6.37 −2.86 −3.59 <0.001 −5.29 −1.88
None R     R     R     R    
Socioeconomic status
 High R     R     R     R    
 Average −2.13 0.006 −3.66 −0.60 −2.99 <0.001 −4.47 −1.51 − 2.24 0.009 − 3.92 − 0.55 − 4.31 <0.001 −5.69 − 2.92
 Low −5.85 <0.001 −7.50 − 4.20 −9.03 <0.001 −10.63 −7.44 −8.33 <0.001 − 10.1 −6.54 − 9.98 <0.001 −11.5 −8.47
Social capital 0.09 <0.001 0.06 0.18 0.13 <0.001 0.09 0.17 0.14 <0.001 0.09 0.18 0.15 <0.001 0.11 0.19
  Random – effect parameters
  Est SE 95% CI Est SE 95% CI Est SE 95% CI Est SE 95% CI
LL UL LL UL LL UL LL UL
  Level 1: Union council
 Sex (sd) 0.20 1.27 1.1e−6 3.9e4 0.97 0.69 0.24 3.95 0.97 0.76 0.21 4.53 1.81 0.66 0.89 3.71
 Age (sd) 0.03 0.04 0.004 0.27 0.03 0.03 0.004 0.26 0.03 0.04 0.003 0.36 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.14
 Social Capital (sd) 0.05 0.02 0.02 0.09 0.06 0.01 0.04 0.09 0.02 0.03 0.003 0.24 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.12
 Constant (sd) 2.27 1.27 0.76 6.80 0.004 0.01 1.4e−5 0.90 8.7e−7 3.1e−6 8.9e−10 8.5e−4 2.38 1.84 0.52 10.86
  Level 2: Cluster number
 Constant (sd) 3.63 0.51 2.76 4.79 3.95 0.49 3.09 5.05 5.39 0.54 4.42 6.56 5.03 0.48 4.16 6.08
 Residual (sd) 13.2 0.22 12.77 13.63 12.74 0.21 12.33 13.16 14.65 0.24 14.19 15.14 11.81 0.20 11.42 12.21
  1. aβ,. Beta coefficient
  2. CI confidence interval;
  3. The Linear regression final model adjusted type of family, residence ownership, marital status, education and employment status in physical domain and Psychological domain. Type of family, Type of residence, residence ownership, marital status, education, employment status and disease for Social domain. Type of family, residence ownership, marital status, Age, sex, education, employment status, disease in Environmental domain. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant
  4. The short dashes mean that the variable was removed by the stepwise deletion process in regression analysis