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Table 5 Univariate and Multilevel Linear Regression showing association between socio demographic variables with Environmental domain of QOL BREF in Abbottabad, Pakistan

From: Assessing the quality of life among Pakistani general population and their associated factors by using the World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF): a population based cross-sectional study

Variable Univariate analysis Adjusted analysis
Beta coefficient 95% CI p - value Beta coefficient 95% CI p - value
LL UL LL UL
Fixed – effect parameters
Type of family
 Joint Ra R 0.073
 Nuclear − 2.21 −3.49 −.94 <0.001 −.99 − 2.09 0.093
Type of Residence   
 Urban R     R    0.002
 Rural −6.27 −7.64 −4.89 <0.001 −5.28 −8.63 −1.94
Sex
 Male R R 0.891
 Female −1.13 −2.44 .167 0.087 .09 −1.25 1.44
Residence Ownership
 Owner R R 0.242
 Not owner .10 −2.06 2.27 0.924 −1.20 −3.21 .811
Age (decade) −0.1 −0.60 0.35 0.588 0.340 −0.22 0.91 0.239
Marital Status
 Married R R <0.001
 Widow −9.40 −13.18 −5.62 <0.001 −7.04 − 10.37 −3.72
 Divorced 4.34 −7.40 16.10 0.468 4.33 −5.40 14.08
 Separated −1.08 −11.96 9.80 0.845 −2.51 −11.54 6.51
 Never married 1.05 −.64 2.75 0.223 1.37 −.28 3.01
Education
 No Education −5.02 −7.66 −2.39 <0.001 −.75 −3.29 1.79 0.065
 Madressa 1.86 −2.89 6.62 0.443 4.26 .10 8.42
 Can read / write −2.44 −5.32 .43 0.096 .96 −1.68 3.59
 Primary −0.06 −2.44 2.31 0.957 1.29 −0.87 3.44
 Secondary 0.28 −2.09 2.66 0.812 1.24 −0.84 3.33
 Tertiary R R
Disease
 Physical disability −3.02 −8.56 2.52 0.285 −1.96 −6.61 2.69 0.114
 Hypertension −1.97 −4.49 .561 0.127 −2.48 −4.99 .030
 Diabetes −3.90 −7.82 .009 0.050 −3.80 −7.32 −.288
 Other −2.20 −3.56 −.85 0.001 −1.61 −3.35 .12
None R R
Employment status
 Working R R 0.201
 Not Working −1.28 −2.61 .03 0.056 −.55 −1.88 .79
 Retired 1.55 −1.61 4.71 0.336 2.01 −.690 4.71
Socioeconomic status
 High R R <0.001
 Average −4.46 −5.95 −2.99 <0.001 −4.05 −5.46 −2.65
 Low −11.58 −13.06 −10.09 <0.001 −9.20 − 10.79 −7.62
Social capital 0.17 0.12 0.21 <0.001 .14 .10 .18 <0.001
Random – effect parameters
   Estimate Std. Err 95% confidence interval
LL UL
Level 1: Union council
 Sex 1.67 0.69 0.74 3.73
 Age 0.07 0.03 0.03 0.14
 Social Capital 0.07 0.01 0.04 0.12
 Constant 2.81 1.66 0.88 8.96
Level 2: Cluster number
 Constant 4.90 0.48 4.04 5.94
 Residual 11.68 0.19 11.29 12.08
  1. a R ., reference
  2. CI confidence interval;
  3. Adjusted analysis performed with all variables entered simultaneously into the model
  4. Multiple linear regression was used for analysis and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant