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Table 1 Summary of the 23 publications included in the review

From: The relationship between health literacy and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Design Survey time Location Study population QOL instrument HL instrument Quality score
Chunhua L, et al. 2013 [17] Cross-sectional April–June, 2012 Guangzhou,China 2109 college students (age: 15–28 years, 55.2% female) EQ-5D Self-developed scales:
Three aspects of HL, Five types of HL
Nan W, et al. 2012 [18] Cross-sectional Jiaozuo, China 600 community elders (age: over 45 years, 57.5% female) SF-36 Questionnaire on the health literacy of Chinese citizens 6
Liu L, et al. 2016 [19] Cross-sectional January–September, 2015 Urumqi,China 556 coronary heart disease patients
(age: 45–83 years, 31.1% female)
EQ-5D Self-developed questionnaire containing
Four dimensions of HL: knowledge, attitude, behaviors, skills.
Yan Z, et al. 2012 [43] Cross-sectional Jilin, China 192 empty nest elders(over 65 years, 57.8% female) SF-36 Self-developed questionnaire measuring health literacy of elderly 6
Qiyuan L, et al. 2011 [42] Cross-sectional May–November, 2010. Yanji, China 331 Hypertensive elderly (over 60 years, 63.4% female) Self-developed questionnaire containing Global QOL, Psychological general well-being, Symptom bother Self-developed questionnaire measuring health literacy about hypertension 9
Wenning D, et al. 2015 [41] Cross-sectional November–December, 2014. Kunming, China 500 college students (age: 17–24 years, 56.7% female) Self-developed questionnaire measuring QOL of college students Self-developed questionnaire measuring health literacy of college students 8
Couture EM, et al. 2017 [34] Cross-sectional Quebec, Canada 247 chronic Participants (age: 18–85 years, 55.5% female) SF-12v2 NVS 7
Halverson JL, et al. 2015 [35] Cross-sectional 2006s-sect Wisconsin, America 1841 Wisconsin residents, newly diagnosed with lung, prostate, breast, or colorectal cancer(age: over 18 years, 50.8% female) FACT-G Self-developed questionnaire containing four questions validated in STOFHLA and REALM 8
Naimi AJ, et al. 2017 [11] Cross-sectional Tehran, Iran 400 hypertensive patients (age: 18–89 years, 45.0% female) SF-36 HELIA 6
Song S, et al.
2017 [38]
Cross-sectional October ectionale patie South Korea 305 non-institutionalized adults (age: 20–60 years, 50.5% female) SF-36 REALM 6
Wang C, et al. 2015 [31] Cross-sectional Northwestern China 913 poor rural women (age: 23–57) EQ-5D R-CAHLQ 6
Wang C, et al. 2017 [13] Cross-sectional 2001s-sec Six towns,China 882 hypertensive patients (age: over 35 years, 56.1% female) SF-36 Self-developed questionnaire validated three-item BHLS 7
Rocha PC, et al. 2017 [37] Cross-sectional Belo Horizonte,Brazil 384 adolescents (age: 15 and 19 years, 70.3% female). PedsQL Self-developed questionnaire, composed of closed questions 5
Macabasco OA, et al. 2011 [30] Cross-sectional 2007–2009 America 605 patients with symptomatic heart failure (age: over 18 years, 48.0% female) HFSS TOFHLA 7
Johnston MV, et al. 2005 [36] Cross-sectional new jersey,America 107 patients with spinal cord injury (age: over 18 years, 17.8% female) SF-12,SWLS TOFHLA 6
Ownby RL, et al. 2014 [12] Cross-sectional Central and South America as well as Mexico and the US 475 English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling volunteers(age: 18–81 years, 60% female) SF-36,EQ-5D TOFHLA, REALM 5
Zhang XH, et al. 2009 [40] Cross-sectional a tertiary referral center,Singapore 199 patients with rheumatic diseases (over 18 years, 70.5% female) SF-36,EQ-5D, and SF-6D. REALM 6
Wallace LS, et al. 2008 [39] Cross-sectional September, 2004 Tennesseans,America 249 patients (age: over 18 years, 65.1% female) Self-developed:
fouritems developed and validated by CDC
Son YJ, et al.
2016 [32]
Longitudinal cohort June 2012–July 2013 Cheonan,Korean 238 PCI patients (33.2% female) Self-developed:
a validating 10-item questionnaire
Self-developed containing the three-item set of brief screening questions 9
Mancuso CA, et al. 2006 [33] Longitudinal cohort 1995–1999 New York,America 175 asthma patients
(mean age: 40 years, 83% female)
Al SF, et al.
2016 [29]
Longitudinal cohort December 2011–December 2013 Alberta,Canada 1948 Patients with type 2 diabetes (age: over 18 years, 45.0% female) EQ-5D,SF-36 BHLS 7
Montbleau KE, et al. 2017 [10] Cohort an urban, safety-net hospital,America 40 patients with Atrial fibrillation (age: over 60 years, 45.0% female) SF-36 STOFHLA 6
Husson O, et al. 2015 [20] Longitudinal 2000–2009 southern part of the Netherlands 1626 Colorectal cancer survivors (age: over 18 years, 42.9% female) EORTC QLQ-C30 SBSQ 9
  1. EQ-5D the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, SF-36 the 36-item Short Form, SF-12v2 Short Form Health Survey, NVS the Newest Vital Sign, FACT-G the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, STOFHLA Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, REALM the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, HELIA Health Literacy for Iranian Adults, R-CAHLQ the revised Chinese Adult Health Literacy Questionnaire, BHLS Brief Health Literacy Screening, PedsQL the Paediatric Questionnaire on Quality of Life, HFSS the Heart Failure Symptom Scale, TOFHLA Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, SWLS Satisfaction with Life Scale, AQLQ the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire, SBSQ Chew’s three-item Set of Brief Screening Questions, EORTC QLQ-C30 Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30