Skip to main content

Table 3 Alignment of the EQ-5D-5L Dimensions to Key Impact Concepts

From: Is the EQ-5D fit for purpose in asthma? Acceptability and content validity from the patient perspective

Concept EQ-5D Dimension Interview Findings
Physical functioning Mobility and Usual activities ▪ Participants reported difficulties with physical functions that required respiratory effort (e.g., climbing stairs, walking uphill, and running).
▪ EQ-5D-5L usual activities dimension was generally acceptable to participants, and the dimension reflected the activity limitation concepts raised in the concept-elicitation interviews.
▪ The level of mobility reflected in the EQ-5D-5L mobility dimension (i.e., problems with walking about) was poorly aligned to the issues experienced by most of the participants.
Self-care Self-care ▪ The EQ-5D-5L self-care item was almost universally considered to be neither relevant nor important to the patient experience of asthma.
Emotions Anxiety or depression ▪ Participants reported a range of emotions in relation to their asthma, e.g., frustration, low mood, worry, and embarrassment.
▪ The expression of anxiety in the EQ-5D-5L was not completely aligned with the emotions expressed in the interviews, but the concept was seen as more relevant than depression.
▪ The combination of depression and anxiety in one dimension was unacceptable to some participants and led to inconsistencies in responses; participants answered variously in terms of one or both of the issues, despite the question and response options relating only to anxiety or depression.
▪ Participants identified emotions other than anxiety or depression as being missing from the EQ-5D-5L.
Asthma symptoms Pain or discomfort ▪ The symptoms of asthma were central to the impact of asthma; this impact was expressed in terms of the experiential effect (e.g., the unpleasant and frightening experience of the symptoms themselves) and the impact on participants’ lives (e.g., being unable to take part in activities).
▪ Shortness of breath was described as the most bothersome symptom.
▪ Discomfort and pain were less commonly reported and were more distal to the asthma experience; discomfort was generally more relevant than pain.
▪ The combination of pain and discomfort in one dimension was unacceptable to some participants and led to inconsistencies in responses; participants answered variously in terms of one or both of the issues, despite the question and response options relating to pain or discomfort.
Nighttime symptoms and sleep disturbance Not assessed ▪ Nighttime symptoms and the associated sleep disturbance were often reported by participants and had particular salience for some individuals.
▪ These issues were highlighted by some participants as missing from the EQ-5D-5L.
Social functioning Not assessed ▪ For some participants, asthma had a considerable impact on their ability to go out or engage socially.
Relationships Not assessed ▪ For individual participants, asthma impacted relationships with friends and family, often as a result of not being able to do or take part in certain activities.
  1. EQ-5D-5L EQ-5D 5 Level