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Table 1 Characteristics of the participants by satisfaction with life score

From: Life satisfaction among elderly patients in Nepal: associations with nutritional and mental well-being

Characteristics Cumulative Satisfaction with Life Score Satisfaction with Life Score Categorized
Dissatisfied n = 61, 21.1% Satisfied n = 228, 78.9% p-value
Mean ± SD p-value1 n (%) n (%)
Life Satisfaction Score (Mean ± SD) 15.5 ± 3.6 27.1 ± 3.2 < 0.001a
MNA-SF Score (Mean ± SD) 9.2 ± 3.0 11.4 ± 2.2 < 0.001a
Nutritional Status   < 0.001    < 0.001
 Malnourished 19.7 ± 6.3   17 (27.9) 13 (5.7)  
 At risk of Malnutrition 23.4 ± 6.0   29 (47.5) 80 (35.1)  
 Normal Nutritional Status 26.5 ± 4.6   15 (24.6) 135 (59.2)  
GDS Score (Mean ± SD) 9.1 ± 3.3 5.0 ± 3.4 < 0.001a
Depression   < 0.001    < 0.001
 No 28.2 ± 4.0   7 (11.5) 116 (50.9)  
 Mild 23.3 ± 5.1   23 (37.7) 80 (35.1)  
 Severe 19.8 ± 5.2   31 (50.8) 32 (14.0)  
Age, Years (Mean ± SD) 69.1 ± 7.4 68.4 ± 6.2 0.435a
Age Categories   0.976    0.926
 60–64 24.7 ± 6.3   17 (27.9) 68 (29.8)  
 65–69 24.7 ± 6.4   18 (29.5) 69 (30.3)  
 70–74 24.3 ± 4.7   13 (21.3) 51 (22.4)  
 75 and above 24.8 ± 4.9   13 (21.3) 40 (17.5)  
Sex   0.426    0.399
 Male 24.9 ± 5.7   33 (54.1) 137 (60.1)  
 Female 24.3 ± 5.9   28 (45.9) 91 (39.9)  
Ethnicity   0.228    0.139
 Upper Caste 25.1 ± 6.2   27 (44.3) 107 (46.9)  
 Janjatis 24.4 ± 5.4   26 (42.6) 108 (47.4)  
 Dalit/Other Ethnic Minorities 22.9 ± 5.3   8 (13.1) 13 (5.7)  
Marital Status   0.005    0.002
 Married 25.1 ± 5.5   40 (65.6) 191 (83.8)  
 Separated/Widow/Single 22.7 ± 6.4   21 (34.4) 37 (16.2)  
Educational Status   0.183    0.416
 Illiterate 24.2 ± 6.2   27 (44.3) 85 (37.3)  
 Informal 24.2 ± 5.1   21 (34.4) 76 (33.3)  
 Formal 25.6 ± 5.8   13 (21.3) 67 (29.4)  
Family’s Monthly Income $, n = 167 (Mean ± SD) 174.8 ± 86.7 212.3 ± 89.7 0.036a
Family’s Monthly Income Category   0.109    0.101
 < $200 23.9 ± 6.4   18 (58.1) 52 (38.2)  
 $200- < $300 25.5 ± 4.0   7 (22.6) 55 (40.4)  
 > =300 25.9 ± 5.1   6 (19.4) 29 (21.3)  
BMI (Mean ± SD) 24.4 ± 3.2 25.0 ± 3.6 0.215a
Weight Status   0.660    0.700
 Underweight 23.0 ± 7.4   3 (4.9) 7 (3.1)  
 Normal Weight 24.9 ± 6.9   18 (29.5) 59 (25.9)  
 Overweight 24.4 ± 5.5   30 (49.2) 112 (49.1)  
 Obese 25.1 ± 4.4   10 (16.4) 50 (21.9)  
Family Structure   0.008    0.009
 Nuclear 22.4 ± 7.4   17 (27.9) 30 (13.2)  
 Joint 25.2 ± 5.4   34 (55.7) 170 (74.6)  
 Extended 24.1 ± 5.1   10 (16.4) 28 (12.3)  
Smoked 24.2 ± 5.6 0.147 32 (52.5) 123 (53.9) 0.102
Used Alcohol 25.1 ± 4.7 0.286 13 (21.3) 85 (37.3) 0.019
Self-Perceived Health Status   < 0.001    < 0.001
 Better than Peers 25.6 ± 6.9   13 (21.3) 56 (24.6)  
 Similar to Peers 25.7 ± 4.6   17 (27.9) 122 (53.5)  
 Worse than Peers 21.9 ± 5.7   31 (50.8) 50 (21.9)  
Currently Working   0.017    0.067
 Yes 27.1 ± 4.3   2 (3.3) 25 (11.0)  
 No 24.4 ± 5.9   59 (96.7) 203 (89.0)  
Perceived as Ignored/Hated due to Old Age   < 0.001    0.001
 Yes 21.1 ± 6.3   18 (29.5) 27 (11.8)  
 No 25.3 ± 5.4   43 (70.5) 201 (88.2)  
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, MNA-SF mini nutritional assessment short form cumulative score, GDS geriatric depression scale short form cumulative score
  2. ap-value from independent t-test; all others are from chi-square. 1p-value from ANOVA and independent t-test as applicable.