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Table 1 Sample description, sample size, and measures of the suitability of the data for factor analysis in the studies reporting factor structure of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index

From: Dimensionality of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a systematic review

Author and year of publication Sample description, age Sample size KMO & Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity Determinant Score & Anti-image/Diagonal element of anti-correlation matrix Inter-component co-relations
Aloba et al. 2007 [31] Nigerian College students 520
Anandakumar et al. 2016 [67] outpatients at a hospital in Srilanka, 50.02 ± 13.5 205 0.83 & < 0.001 0.42–0.81
Babson et al. 2012 [30] Military veterans with PTSD 226 − 0.02–0.53
Becker & Jesus 2017 [53] Community dwelling Portugese adults, 70.05 ± 7.15 204 0.731 & < 0.001 0.12–0.52
Benhayon et al. 2013 [61] Pediatric patients with Crohn disease (14.4 ± 2.3) and healthy controls (14.8 ± 2.0) CD, n = 96
Healthy controls. N = 19
0.7 & < 0.001
Burkhalter et al. 2010 [29] American renal transplant recipients 135 0.14–0.73
Buysse et al. 2008 [28] Senior African-American & Caucasian adults 187
Casement et al. 2012 [35] Women with PTSD 319
Chong & Cheung 2012 [34] Cantonese Chinese, age > 45 years 794 0.07–0.76
Qiu et al. 2016 [58] Pregnant women, 33.4 ± 4.2 1488 0.72 & < 0.001
Cole et al. 2006 [22] American older adults 207, 210 0.04–0.60, 0.11–0.66
De la Vega et al. 2015 [59] Adolescents and young adults, 17.12 ± 3.05 216 .77 & < 0.001
DeGutis et al. 2016 [62] Trauma exposed veterans, 31.51 ± 8.16 283
Dudysova et al. 2017 [66] Outpatients of the sleep laboratory at Prague psychiatric center, 44.5 ± 14.24 105 0.05–0.73
Gelaye et al. 2014 [44] Chilean, Ethiopian, Peruvian and Thai college students (N = 830), (N = 2230), (N = 2581), (N = 2840) 0.724 to 0.801 & < 0.001
Hita-Contreras et al. 2014 [43] Spanish fibromyalgia patients 138 0.784 & < 0.001
Ho et al. 2014 [42] Chinese breast cancer patients 197 0.15–0.78
Jiménez-Genchi et al. 2008 [27] Spanish healthy controls and psychiatric patients 135 0.06–0.77
Jomeen& Martin 2007 [26] Pregnant women with depression, 28.86 ± 55.19 180
Koh et al. 2015 [41] Multi-ethnic Asians in Singapore 489, 1976 0.02–0.48, 0.05–0.36
Kotronoulas et al. 2011 [25] Cancer patients on chemotherapy 209 .79 & < 0.001 .16–.70
Lequerica et al. 2014 [40] Traumatic brain injury patients 243
Magee et al. 2008 [24] Australian adults 364 < 0.43
Manzar et al. 2016a [17] Indian university students 209, 209 0.754 & < 0.001 > 0.00001 & all values > 0.5
Manzar et al. 2016b [15] Indian university students 418 0.758 & < 0.001 > 0.00001 & all values > 0.5
Mariman et al. 2012 [33] Belgians with CFS 413 0.02–0.72
Nazifi et al. 2014 [39] Iranian health professionals 415 0.58 & < 0.05
Nicassio et al. 2014 [38] American rheumatoid arthritis patients 107
Otte et al. 2013 [32] Breast cancer survivors 1172 0.18–0.51
Otte et al. 2015 [37] Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes 849 0.01–0.46
Rener-Sitar et al. 2014 [46] TMD, 37.1 ± 13.1 TMD with pain (496) & TMD without pain (113) − 0.18 to 0.74
Salahuddin et al. 2017 [16] Commmunity dwelling Ethiopian Adults, 25.5 ± 6.0 311 0.51, 0.52 & < 0.001, < 0.001 0.08, 0.09 & 0.39–0.67 0.48–0.64
Skouteris et al. 2009 [23] Pregnant women with depression, 31.67 ± 4.55 252
Tomfohr et al. 2013 [36] Community-dwelling English speaking Spanish, English and Non-hispanic white 792, 654, 1698 0.05–0.48, 0.18–0.59, 0.07–0.52
Yunus et al. 2016 [48] Community dwelling older Malaysians Phase 1, n = 183
Phase 2, n = 2118
Zheng et al. 2016 [50] Chinese medical students, 20.2 ± 1.3 603 0.45–0.57
Zhong et al. 2015 [45] Pregnant Peruvian women 642 0.65 & < 0.001 0.10 to 0.40
João et al. 2017 [57] Portuguese community-dwelling adults, 35.93 ± 11.01 347 0.59 & < 0.001 0.00–0.54
Chen et al. 2017 [63] Taiwanese insomniacs, 43.15 114
Khosravifar et al. 2015 [51] Depressed and healthy Iranians, 32.3 ± 7.1 193 0.598 & < 0.001
Fontes et al. 2017 [49] Portuguese breast cancer patients, 57.9 ± 10.8 474
Guo et al. 2016 [60] Chinese undergraduate students,20.86 ± 1.33 631
Morris et al. 2017 [65] Diabetic Americans male and females, 55.3 ± 11.1, 58.5 ± 10.0 198 0.60 & < 0.001 < 0.80
Passos et al. 2016 [52] Brazilian adolescents, 10–19 309 0.59 & < 0.001
Zhu et al. 2018 [64] Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes, 55.18 ± 12.65 240 0.82 & < 0.01 0.05–0.65