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Table 2 Pain perception, disability and HRQoL changes during follow-up

From: Benefits in pain perception, ability function and health-related quality of life in patients with failed back surgery syndrome undergoing spinal cord stimulation in a clinical practice setting

Domains and indexes Baseline ∆ 6 m–0 m* ∆ 12 m–6 m* ∆ 18 m–12 m* ∆ 24 m–18 m*
NRS maximum score (mean ± SD) 9.2(±0.1) -2.5c 0.3 −0.3 0.0
mean score (mean ± SD) 7.5(±0.2) −2.6c 0.2 −0.4 0.3
ODI Pain intensity, (levels 4–5) 37.5% −24.8c 2.5 −2.4 1.3
Personal care, (levels 4–5) 25.6% −15.5a 2.5 −1.1 − 1.3
lifting, (levels 4–5) 69.6% −5.1 −1.3 14.8a − 5.1
ability to walk, (levels 4–5) 32.5% − 3.4 − 12.7 b 4.1 1.3
ability to sit, (levels 4–5) 25.3% −8.9 −6.3 0.1 2.6
ability to stand, (levels 4–5) 46.8% −17.7a − 1.3 6.8 3.8
sleep quality, (levels 4–5) 21.3% −8.6a − 1.3 1.4 0.0
sexual function, (levels 4–5) 49.3% −10.1 −6.8 − 0.9 0.0
social life, (levels 4–5) 57.5% −27.1c −2.5 −4.8 −1.3
ability to travel, (levels 4–5) 60.0% −25.8c −1.3 − 0.9 2.6
total score (mean ± SD) 61.6 (±15.0) −16.0c − 0.1 −2.5 − 0.6
SF-36 physical functioning (mean ± SD) 23.2 (±15.8) 14.3c 0.4 −0.5 −2.6a
role-physical (mean ± SD) 22.4 (±33.1) 11.4a 1.1 −1.1 −4.3
bodily pain (mean ± SD) 21.2 (±14.1) 21.4c −0.6 0.0 −0.6
social functioning (mean ± SD) 31.3 (±18.8) 18.2c −1.4 2.4 −1.9
role-emotional (mean ± SD) 29.4 (±36.5) 14.8a − 2.7 6.1 − 4.7
mental health (mean ± SD) 42.8 (±19.8) 8.0b −1.0 2.7 −3.4a
energy/vitality (mean ± SD) 30.5 (±17.5) 10.8c −2.7 1.8 −0.5
general health (mean ± SD) 33.2 (±13.3) 3.8a 0.4 1.3 − 2.0
PCS (mean ± SD) 26.7 (±6.2) 5.8c 0.3 −0.7 −0.6
MCS (mean ± SD) 35.8 (±9.9) 4.9b −1.3 2.2 −1.4
EQ-5D Mobility, (extreme problems) 16.3% −5.0 −2.5 −1.3 0.0
Self-care, (extreme problems) 10.0% −3.8 1.3 −3.8 0.0
Usual activities, (extreme problems) 41.3% −20.0b 2.5 −3.8 1.3
Pain/Discomfort, (extreme problems) 65.0% −37.5c 0.0 0.0 1.3
Anxiety/Depression, (extreme problems) 25.0% −1.3 −3.8 −2.5 0.0
Utility index (mean ± SD) 0.421 ± 0.303 0.174c 0.021 0.025 −0.011
  VAS (mean ± SD) 37.4 ± 2.4 18.6c −1.0 3.3 −0.9
  1. ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.001. P-values were corrected with Bonferroni’s method
  2. *On NRS, ODI and EQ-5D profile domains, a negative change () indicates improvement, a positive change indicates worsening, on SF-36 single and summary domains, on the EQ-5D utility index and VAS a positive change () indicates improvement, a negative change indicates worsening