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Table 3 Comparison dsd-LIFE participants to reference populations per country

From: Multicentre cross-sectional clinical evaluation study about quality of life in adults with disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) compared to country specific reference populations (dsd-LIFE)

Country WHOQOL-BREF Reference population Study participants (dsd-LIFE) p-value
   n Mean SD n Mean SD Mean SD  
  [0–100] [0–100] [4-20] [4-20]
France
  Physical health Healthy 12,186 80.2 11.0 249 71.2 16.8 15.4 2.7 4.1 E-36
  Psychological   12,186 67.7 11.0 251 65.7 17.4 14.5 2.8 4.5 E-03
  Social relationships   12,186 75.4 11.0 250 65.7 19.6 14.5 3.1 1.9 E-41
  Environment   249 73.9 14.6 15.7 2.3
  Physical health Non-healthy 4192 66.4 19.4 249 71.2 16.8 15.4 2.7 1.4 E-04
  Psychological   4192 64.9 13.0 251 65.7 17.4 14.5 2.8 n.s.*
  Social relationships   4192 71.5 19.4 250 65.7 19.6 14.5 3.1 3.9 E-06
  Environment   249 73.3 14.6 15.7 2.3
Germany
  Physical health Healthy 2052 76.9 17.7 238 73.0 19.3 15.7 3.1 1.3 E-03
  Psychological   2055 74.0 15.7 239 65.0 19.3 14.4 3.1 4.6 E-16
  Social relationships   2048 71.8 18.5 239 62.3 22.2 14.0 3.6 2.9 E-13
  Environment   2053 70.4 14.2 239 75.1 14.6 16.0 2.3 1.6 E-06
  Physical health Non-healthy (physical) 261 53.4 20.3 238 73.0 19.3 15.7 3.1 2.0 E-25
  Psychological   261 62.7 16.3 239 65.0 19.3 14.4 3.1 n.s.*
  Social relationships   261 68.0 16.9 239 62.3 22.2 14.0 3.6 1.3 E-03
  Environment   261 67.2 13.4 239 75.1 14.6 16.0 2.3 7.4 E-10
  Physical health Non-healthy (mental) 98 58.5 17.7 238 73.0 19.3 15.7 3.1 5.1 E-10
  Psychological   98 52.0 19.5 239 65.0 19.3 14.4 3.1 4.4 E-08
  Social relationships   98 50.9 26.5 239 62.3 22.2 14.0 3.6 6.3 E-05
  Environment   98 59.3 18.8 239 75.1 14.6 16.0 2.3 3.4 E-15
Netherlands
  Physical health Healthy 218 15.2 2.6 229 67.3 20.2 14.8 3.2 n.s.*
  Psychological   218 14.4 2.0 230 61.9 18.1 13.9 2.9 n.s.*
  Social relationships   218 15.4 2.9 230 62.6 21.0 14.0 3.4 3.9 E-06
  Environment   218 15.8 2.0 230 72.6 15.1 15.6 2.4 n.s.*
  Physical health Non-healthy 410 11.8 3.0 229 67.3 20.2 14.8 3.2 4.7 E-29
  Psychological   410 10.5 2.5 230 61.9 18.1 13.9 2.9 1.4 E-46
  Social relationships   410 12.8 3.5 230 62.6 21.0 14.0 3.4 3.3 E-05
  Environment   410 13.5 2.5 230 72.6 15.1 15.6 2.4 1.3 E-22
Poland
  Physical health Healthy 438 15.8 2.2 107 69.1 14.0 15.1 2.2 2.5 E-03
  Psychological   438 13.8 2.5 107 63.5 17.4 14.2 2.8 n.s.*
  Social relationships   438 14.9 3.0 107 59.5 19.1 13.5 3.1 4.5 E-05
  Environment   438 13.1 2.4 107 71.0 13.1 15.4 2.1 1.2 E-17
  Physical health Non-healthy 470 13.1 2.7 107 69.1 14.0 15.1 2.2 7.0 E-12
  Psychological   470 12.5 2.6 107 63.5 17.4 14.2 2.8 6.8 E-09
  Social relationships   470 13.4 3.1 107 59.5 19.1 13.5 3.1 n.s.*
  Environment   470 12.8 2.4 107 71.0 13.1 15.4 2.1 5.8 E-23
Sweden
  Physical health   119 70.3 18.0 15.3 2.9
  Psychological   119 63.7 17.3 14.2 2.8
  Social relationships   119 61.3 20.6 13.8 3.3
  Environment   119 72.5 14.0 15.6 2.2
United Kingdom
  Physical health Healthy 1324 76.5 16.2 42 64.1 20.1 14.3 3.2 1.5 E-06
  Psychological   1324 67.8 15.6 42 60.4 17.5 13.7 2.8 2.6 E-03
  Social relationships   1324 70.5 20.7 42 57.9 24.0 13.3 3.8 1.2 E-04
  Environment   1324 68.2 13.8 42 68.5 18.3 15.0 2.9 n.s.*
  Physical health Non-healthy 1864 57.0 22.7 42 64.1 20.1 14.3 3.2 4.4 E-02
  Psychological   1864 58.3 19.3 42 60.4 17.5 13.7 2.8 n.s.*
  Social relationships   1864 62.8 23.2 42 57.9 24.0 13.3 3.8 n.s.*
  Environment   1864 64.9 16.9 42 68.5 18.3 15.0 2.9 n.s.*
  1. Legend: n.s.* not significant after Bonferroni correction
  2. (The values of the WHOQOL-BREF are shown with range 0–100 as well as range 4–20 for our study participants; reference population: value 0–100 for France, Germany and UK and value 4–20 for Netherlands and Poland)