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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study subjects

From: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with poorer satisfaction with diabetes-related treatment and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

  All patients(n = 292) No Vitamin D deficiency (n = 192) Vitamin D deficiency (n = 100) p-value
Vitamin D (ng/mL) 18.4 [13.1;25.0] 22.7 [18.7;28.0] 11.1 [9.18;13.2]  
Gender (female) 148 (50.7%) 101 (52.6%) 47 (47%) 0.432
Age, years 60.0 [51.8; 68.0] 60.0 [50.8; 68.0] 59.5 [52.8; 67.0] 0.683
Retinopathy 145 (49.7%) 88 (45.8%) 57 (57.0%) 0.091
Education     0.672
 Not even primary 38 (13.0%) 22 (11.5%) 16 (16.0%)  
 Complete primary 165 (56.5%) 111 (57.8%) 54 (54.0%)  
 Complete secondary 68 (23.3%) 44 (22.9%) 24 (24.0%)  
 Graduate or higher 21 (7.19%) 15 (7.81%) 6 (6.0%)  
Caucasian 281 (96.2%) 189 (98.4%) 92 (92.0%) 0.009
Smoking (Current/Former/Never) 60/93/137 39/62/89 21/31/48 0.961
Diabetes duration (years) 8 [4.0; 15.0] 8 [4.0; 14.0] 10 [5.0; 15.0] 0.322
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 59.6 [51.4; 69.4] 56.8 [48.9; 66.1] 61.7 [51.9; 70.5] 0.049
Hypertension 165 (56.5%) 108 (56.2%) 57 (57.0%) 1.000
Dyslipidaemia 128 (43.8%) 88 (45.8%) 40 (40.0%) 0.407
Antiplatelet agents 114 (38.7%) 70 (36.5%) 43 (43.0%) 0.336
Psychotropic drugs 81 (27.7%) 50 (26.0%) 31 (31.0%) 0.447
Serum creatinine (mg/dl) 0.79 [0.68; 0.93] 0.80 [0.69; 0.92] 0.78 [0.66; 0.94] 0.561
Systolic BP (mmHg) 139 (18.7) 138 (18.3) 142 (19.1) 0.086
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 76.7 (10.7) 76.8 (10.6) 76.5 (11.0) 0.808
Waist (cm) 106 (11.8) 105 (11.0) 107 (13.1) 0.162
Diabetes treatment     0.489
 Oral antidiabetic agents 158 (54.1%) 106 (55.2%) 52 (52.0%)  
 Oral antidiabetic agents + Insulin 74 (25.3%) 45 (23.4%) 29 (29.0%)  
 Insulin 22 (7.53%) 13 (6.77%) 9 (9.0%)  
 Diet 38 (13.0%) 28 (14.6%) 10 (10.0%)  
Physical activity (>  25 min/day) 113 (38.7%) 68 (35.4%) 45 (45.0%) 0.142
Present quality of life 0.69 (1.15) 0.79 (1.09) 0.50 (1.24) 0.044
Diabetes-specific quality of life −1.0 [−2.0; 0.0] 0.0 [−1.0; 0.0] −1.0 [−2.0; 0.0] 0.001
Average weighted impact: ADDQoL score 0.58 [−1.23; −0.17] −0.53 [− 1.08; − 0.17] 0.74 [− 1.59; − 0.18] 0.091
Perceived hyperglycaemia frequency 3.0 [1.0; 5.0] 3.0 [1.0; 5.0] 4.0 [1.0; 5.0] 0.257
Perceived hypoglycaemia frequency 0.0 [0.0; 2.0] 0.0 [0.0; 2.0] 0.0 [0.0; 2.0] 0.850
Final DTSQ score 27.0 [23.0; 30.0] 28.0 [23.0; 31.0] 25.0 [21.0; 28.2] 0.001
  1. Values are shown as the mean (SD), median [interquartile range] or frequency (%). The p-values correspond to the unadjusted univariate analysis, which compares the difference for each variable between patients with and without vitamin D deficiency.
  2. HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, ADDQoL Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life, DTSQ Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire