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Table 4 Child-Reported Quality of Life Scores of Patients With CDH Stratified by Characteristics at Birth, CDH Severity, and Major Lifetime Comorbid Conditions

From: Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Patients (n) Mean Overall Score (SD) P Value* Mean Physical Score (SD) P Value* Mean Psychosocial Score (SD) P Value*
Characteristics at birth
 Sex    0.56   0.16   0.95
  Male 15 76.4 (14.3)   78.8 (17.4)   75.2 (14.2)  
  Female 13 73.3 (13.7)   70.0 (14.5)   75.6 (15.6)  
 Probability of survival score    0.71   0.89   0.63
  Low or intermediate 8 73.4 (14.7)   75.4 (14.1)   73.2 (16.8)  
  High 20 75.6 (13.9)   74.4 (17.6)   76.3 (13.9)  
 CDH type    0.81   0.42   0.93
  Liver down 22 75.3 (13.6)   76.0 (15.8)   75.3 (14.2)  
  Liver up 6 73.7 (16.2)   69.8 (19.4)   75.8 (17.3)  
 BPD    0.56   0.76   0.47
  Yes 9 72.7 (12.0)   73.3 (15.6)   72.4 (11.9)  
  No 19 76.0 (14.9)   75.3 (17.2)   76.8 (15.8)  
 Initial hospitalization, days    0.48   0.47   0.40
   ≤ 30 15 76.3 (13.0)   73.8 (15.7)   78.1 (14.0)  
  31–60 10 75.9 (15.7)   78.8 (18.3)   74.3 (15.1)  
   ≥ 61 3 65.6 (12.2)   65.6 (14.3)   65.6 (16.2)  
 Mechanical ventilation, days    0.99   0.93   0.88
   ≤ 7 13 75.3 (16.1)   73.3 (15.7)   76.9 (17.8)  
  8–21 10 74.3 (13.3)   75.6 (19.0)   73.7 (12.1)  
   ≥ 22 5 75.4 (11.2)   76.3 (16.3)   75.0 (11.7)  
Postdischarge events
 Hospitalizations, n    0.75   0.24   0.39
  0 6 78.3 (8.5)   70.3 (14.4)   82.7 (9.8)  
  1–2 11 75.3 (18.1)   81.3 (17.3)   72.7 (18.4)  
   ≥ 3 11 72.8 (12.0)   70.5 (15.8)   74.1 (11.9)  
Characteristics at testing
 Age, years    0.76   0.38   0.99
  5–12 16 74.3 (13.8)   72.3 (16.6)   75.4 (14.4)  
   ≥ 13 12 75.9 (14.6)   77.9 (16.5)   75.4 (15.4)  
 Digestive issues    0.22   0.51   0.18
  Yes 17 72.3 (15.5)   73.0 (16.9)   72.4 (16.3)  
  No 11 79.1 (10.2)   77.3 (16.2)   80.0 (10.4)  
 Respiratory issues    0.02   0.01   0.10
  Yes 16 69.9 (14.7)   68.0 (16.4)   71.4 (16.2)  
  No 12 81.7 (9.1)   83.6 (11.9)   80.7 (10.3)  
 Orthopedic issues    0.76   0.97   0.67
  Yes 5 76.7 (10.5)   74.4 (17.9)   78.0 (8.0)  
  No 23 74.6 (14.7)   74.7 (16.6)   74.8 (15.7)  
 Neurologic issues    0.13   0.27   0.11
  Yes 3 63.4 (15.8)   64.6 (15.7)   62.8 (20.0)  
  No 25 76.4 (13.3)   75.9 (16.4)   76.9 (13.5)  
  1. BPD Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, CHD Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, SD Standard deviation. All scores are expressed as mean (SD)
  2. aThe given health-related quality of life score was compared across groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA)