Skip to main content

Table 3 Ordinal regression of associations between the factors and the CPQ11–14

From: The factors that influence oral health-related quality of life in 15-year-old children

  OS FL EWB SWB CPQ11–14
  Adjusted OR (95%CI) P Adjusted OR (95%CI) P Adjusted OR (95%CI) P Adjusted OR (95%CI) P Adjusted OR (95%CI) P
Sociodemographic status
 Gender
  Fa           
  M 1.43 (0.97, 2.10) 0.069 0.76 (0.52, 1.12) 0.172 0.46 (0.31, 0.67) 0.000** 0.59 (0.40, 0.87) 0.008** 0.61 (0.41, 0.89) 0.011*
 Father’s education
  Primary school graduate or belowa           
  Secondary school graduate or below 1.01 (0.56, 1.82) 0.963 0.85 (0.47, 1.52) 0.582 0.89 (0.50, 1.60) 0.694 0.81 (0.45, 1.45) 0.477 0.70 (0.39, 1.26) 0.234
  College graduate or above 0.75 (0.35, 1.64) 0.476 0.57 (0.26, 1.25) 0.161 0.97 (0.45, 2.11) 0.940 0.58 (0.26, 1.27) 0.170 0.52 (0.24, 1.14) 0.101
 Mother’s education
  Primary school graduate or belowa           
  Secondary school graduate or below 0.64 (0.36, 1.15) 0.137 0.86 (0.48, 1.54) 0.610 0.88 (0.49, 1.58) 0.666 0.88 (0.49, 1.58) 0.666 0.90 (0.50, 1.61) 0.723
  College graduate or above 1.46 (0.60, 3.55) 0.407 1.10 (0.45, 2.69) 0.836 0.91 (0.37, 2.22) 0.833 1.35 (0.55, 3.31) 0.510 1.41 (0.58, 3.42) 0.451
 Household income
  Below HK$10,000a           
  HK$10,001-HK$20,000 0.65 (0.36, 1.17) 0.151 1.03 (0.57, 1.84) 0.934 1.14 (0.64, 2.05) 0.659 1.28 (0.71, 2.31) 0.403 0.95 (0.53, 1.69) 0.855
  HK$20,001-HK$30,000 0.66 (0.33, 1.32) 0.241 1.06 (0.53, 2.12) 0.878 1.04 (0.52, 2.09) 0.906 1.29 (0.64, 2.60) 0.474 1.06 (0.53, 2.11) 0.879
  HK$30,001-HK$40,000 1.34 (0.62, 2.88) 0.463 2.37 (1.09, 5.16) 0.030* 0.93 (0.43, 2.03) 0.861 1.10 (0.50, 2.39) 0.818 1.30 (0.60, 2.81) 0.501
  Over HK$40,001 0.61 (0.29, 1.31) 0.204 1.75 (0.82, 3.76) 0.150 1.04 (0.49, 2.23) 0.921 1.37 (0.64, 2.94) 0.421 1.12 (0.53, 2.39) 0.763
Periodontal and caries status
 Periodontal status
  CPI score < 2a           
  CPI score = 2 1.34 (0.80, 2.24) 0.261 1.26 (0.76, 2.11) 0.372 1.48 (0.89, 2.48) 0.132 1.76 (1.05, 2.96) 0.033* 1.71 (1.03, 2.85) 0.038*
 Caries experience
  < SiC Index valuea           
  > =SiC Index value 1.05 (0.60, 1.85) 0.864 0.63 (0.35, 1.12) 0.112 0.79 (0.45, 1.40) 0.425 1.17 (0.66, 2.06) 0.585 0.95 (0.54, 1.66) 0.850
Malocclusion
 IOTN (DHC) treatment need
  No needa           
  Borderline need 0.60 (0.37, 0.99) 0.047* 1.28 (0.78, 2.09) 0.327 1.04 (0.63, 1.70) 0.888 1.45 (0.88, 2.37) 0.142 0.97 (0.60, 1.58) 0.905
  Definite need 1.03 (0.66, 1.63) 0.887 1.31 (0.83, 2.06) 0.250 1.07 (0.68, 1.68) 0.778 1.15 (0.73, 1.81) 0.556 1.08 (0.69, 1.69) 0.744
 IOTN (AC) treatment need
  No needa
  Borderline need 1.60 (0.92, 2.78) 0.096 1.00 (0.57, 1.73) 0.987 1.45 (0.84, 2.53) 0.186 1.31 (0.76, 2.29) 0.333 1.32 (0.76, 2.29) 0.321
  Definite need 1.66 (0.77, 3.56) 0.197 1.88 (0.87, 4.06) 0.107 1.44 (0.67, 3.11) 0.348 0.98 (0.45, 2.11) 0.955 1.34 (0.62, 2.88) 0.452
 DAI severity and treatment need
  Normal or minor malocclusion-no treatment need or slight needa           
  Definite malocclusion-treatment selective 1.28 (0.82, 2.01) 0.281 1.40 (0.89, 2.21) 0.141 1.29 (0.82, 2.03) 0.265 1.54 (0.98, 2.43) 0.060 1.34 (0.86, 2.10) 0.199
  Severe malocclusion-treatment highly desirable 0.82 (0.48, 1.40) 0.462 1.05 (0.61, 1.80) 0.859 0.87 (0.51, 1.50) 0.623 0.68 (0.39, 1.17) 0.162 0.76 (0.45, 1.30) 0.316
  Very severe (handicapping) malocclusion-treatment mandatory 1.62 (0.83, 3.19) 0.159 1.93 (0.98, 3.79) 0.057 1.85 (0.94, 3.63) 0.076 1.47 (0.75, 2.89) 0.263 2.10 (1.06, 4.13) 0.032*
 ICON treatment need
  Noa           
  Yes 1.23 (0.82, 1.83) 0.318 1.40 (0.94, 2.09) 0.101 1.22 (0.82, 1.82) 0.329 1.10 (0.74, 1.65) 0.639 1.21 (0.81, 1.81) 0.343
 ICON complexity
  Easya           
  Mild 0.77 (0.50, 1.20) 0.249 1.63 (1.04, 2.54) 0.033* 1.44 (0.92, 2.25) 0.106 1.71 (1.09, 2.67) 0.020* 1.52 (0.97, 2.36) 0.065
  Moderate 1.32 (0.65, 2.69) 0.443 1.38 (0.68, 2.82) 0.375 1.42 (0.70, 2.91) 0.333 1.38 (0.67, 2.82) 0.382 1.54 (0.76, 3.13) 0.232
  Difficult 1.59 (0.67, 3.78) 0.294 2.08 (0.87, 4.96) 0.101 2.61 (1.09, 6.27) 0.031* 1.56 (0.65, 3.73) 0.315 2.16 (0.91, 5.13) 0.082
  Very difficult 1.35 (0.54, 3.39) 0.523 2.71 (1.07, 6.86) 0.035* 2.00 (0.79, 5.05) 0.141 1.94 (0.77, 4.90) 0.160 1.90 (0.76, 4.77) 0.172
 PAR score range
  Almost ideal or Acceptable occlusion a           
  Malocclusion 1.15 (0.79, 1.69) 0.457 1.55 (1.06, 2.28) 0.023* 1.38 (0.94, 2.01) 0.099 1.41 (0.96, 2.06) 0.078 1.35 (0.92, 1.97) 0.121
  1. Statistical method: Ordinal regression (link function: logit; model: main effects), each orthodontic index adopted one separate ordinal regression; dependent variable: CPQ scores classified into four groups with cut-off points as quartile (1: scores < = first quartile; 2: first quartile < scores < = second quartile; 3: second quartile < scores < = third quartile; 4: scores > third quartile); a: reference group; *: P < 0.05. **: P < 0.01
  2. N: sample size; adjusted OR: malocclusions adjusted for gender, father’s education level (primary school graduate or below; secondary school, post-secondary or above), mother’s education level (levels set as father’s education), household income (Below HK$10000, HK$10001-HK$20000, HK$20001-HK$30000, HK$30001-HK$40000, HK$40001 or above), caries experience (DMFT < SiC Index value, DMFT > = SiC Index value), and periodontal status (CPI score < 2, CPI score = 2); gender, socioeconomic status, periodontal and caries status adjusted for the previous variables and malocclusion measured by PAR (almost ideal occlusion, acceptable occlusion, malocclusion)
  3. IOTN index of orthodontic treatment need, DHC dental health component, AC aesthetic component, ICON index of complexity, outcome and need, PAR peer assessment rating; CPI community periodontal index, DMFT decayed, missing and filled teeth, SiC Index significant caries index, OS oral symptoms domain, FL functional limitations domain, EWB emotional well-being domain, SWB social well-being domain, CPQ child perceptions questionnaire, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval